Chapter 2 : Andre - Butler
Andre, Bernard, c. 1450 – 1522 Andre was a French Augustinian friar appointed by Henry VII to be the tutor of his son Arthur, Prince of Wales. He wrote a life of Henry VII, giving a very positive account of the King’s reign.
Argentine, Dr John d. 1507 Dr Argentine, educated at Cambridge, was the physician of Edward V and his brother, Richard of Shrewsbury, Duke of York. In his later recollections of the two boys he claimed that Edward, imprisoned in the Tower, feared that he was facing imminent death and prayed daily.
Anne of Beaujeu 3 April 1461 - 14 November 1522 Anne was Regent of France for her brother, Charles VIII, during the period 1483 to 1491. During 1484, Anne welcomed Henry Tudor and his uncle, Jasper Tudor, Earl of Pembroke, when they fled Brittany. Anne’s government lent Henry 40,000 livres tournois to finance his invasion. Later, Anne signed the Treaty of Etaples in 1491 that ended the Hundred Years’ War between England and France.
Anne of Bohemia, Queen of England, 11 May 1366 – 7 June 1394 Anne was the beloved first wife of Richard II. She is buried beside him in Westminster Abbey. On Anne’s death, Richard was so distraught by his loss that he set fire to the Palace of Sheen where she had died. He then married a princess of France, who was too young to cohabit, reducing his chances of having a child to succeed him. He therefore named his nephew, Edmund Mortimer, as his heir.
Anne of Brittany, Duchess of Brittany and Queen of France, 25 January 1477 – 9 January 1514 Anne was the eldest daughter and heir of Francis, 2nd Duke of Brittany, who sheltered Henry Tudor during his exile. Edward IV negotiated for a marriage between Anne and his son, Edward, Prince of Wales, but the match was not completed. Anne was married under duress to Charles VIII of France, who sought to annex her independent duchy to France. This, together with Charles’ harbouring of Perkin Warbeck, provoked Henry VII to take an army into France. France, which had other interests, notably pursuing claims in Italy, entered into the Treaty of Etaples to negate the English threat. Anne was subsequently obliged to marry Charles’s heir, Louis XII.
Anne of Burgundy, Duchess of Bedford, 30 September 1404 – 14 November 1432 Anne was the sister of Philip the Good, Duke of Burgundy, England’s ally in the Hundred Years’ War. She was married to John of Lancaster, Duke of Bedford, and brother of Henry V. The marriage, which took place at Troyes in June 1423, was short, but happy. Anne died of plague in Paris and is buried there. Anne had no children. Her widower’s swift remarriage to Jacquetta of Luxembourg caused a rift between England and Burgundy, which the French exploited.
Anne of York, Duchess of Exeter, 10 August 1439 – 14 January 1476 Anne was the oldest daughter of Richard, Duke of York, and his wife, Cecily Neville. She was married to her father’s ward, Henry Holland, 3rd Duke of Exeter, in 1445. Exeter supported Lancaster throughout the war and he and Anne had their marriage annulled in 1472. Anne had one daughter by Exeter, Anne Holland. Her second marriage was to Sir Thomas St Leger, who took part in Buckingham’s rebellion against Richard III, but Anne was long dead by that time.
Anne of York, Princess of England, 2 November 1475 – 23 November 1511 Anne was the third daughter of Edward IV and Elizabeth Woodville. In early childhood she was betrothed to Philip the Fair, Duke of Burgundy, but the marriage never took place. In 1484, a marriage was arranged for her with Lord Thomas Howard, but this did not happen. The Howards supported Richard III and it took some time for the family to be rehabilitated following the Battle of Bosworth. Anne did marry Howard eventually and became Countess of Surrey. She had four children, but none survived infancy.
Anthony, Bastard of Burgundy 1421 – 5 May 1504 Anthony was the illegitimate son of Philip the Good, Duke of Burgundy and thus half-brother to Anne, Duchess of Bedford, and Charles the Bold, Duke of Burgundy. In 1467 he visited the English court where he was treated with great honour. The purpose of this was to demonstrate Edward IV’s eagerness for a treaty with Burgundy rather than with France. Anthony lived a life that exemplified the romantic tales of the period – a great jouster, a fine soldier, a collector of literature and the lover of many women.
Arthur, Prince of Wales 20 September 1486 – 2 April 1502 Arthur was the firstborn child of Henry VII and Elizabeth of York. His birth was intended to cement peace between Lancaster and York. The name Arthur was chosen to reflect Henry VII’s desire to promote his alleged ancestry from King Arthur. Arthur was designated as Prince of Wales and sent to Ludlow Castle to preside over the Council of the Marches. As he was only a child, authority was wielded by his uncle, Jasper Tudor, Duke of Bedford. In November 1501, Arthur was married to the Spanish Princess, Katherine of Aragon, but died within 6 months of his wedding to the grief of his parents and the whole country.
Arthurton, George Originally in the household of Queen Catherine de Valois, he became the confessor of Henry VI.
Aspall, Robert Tutor and chaplain of Edmund, Earl of Rutland, he was by the Earl’s side when the 17-year-old was stabbed by Lord Clifford following the Battle of Wakefield.
Asteley, Joan Head nurse for Henry VI during his childhood.
Atwater, John, Mayor of Cork Atwater was a merchant in the city of Cork, who had twice been chosen as Lord Mayor of the city. A convinced Yorkist, he was one of the early initiators of the scheme to put forward Perkin Warbeck as Richard of Shrewsbury, Duke of York. On 16 November 1498, Atwater was tried at Westminster along with Warbeck
and others, found guilty and hanged, drawn and quartered at Tyburn.
Aiscough, William, Bishop of Salisbury d. 29 June 1450 Aiscough was Henry VI’s confessor and conducted the marriage ceremony between Henry and Margaret of Anjou. He was murdered by the mob during Jack Cade’s rebellion.
Beauchamp, Lady Anne, Countess of Warwick, 13 July 1426 – 20 September 1492 Anne, who was Countess of Warwick in her own right, was married to Richard Neville, son of the Earl of Salisbury, who adopted the title of Earl of Warwick. Warwick was an adherent of York, until he quarrelled with his cousin, Edward IV, largely because of Edward’s marriage to Elizabeth Woodville. Warwick then entered into negotiations with Margaret of Anjou, for the restoration of Henry VI. Anne travelled to France with Warwick and her daughter, also named Anne, who was to be married to Edward of Lancaster, Prince of Wales. When the Lancastrians were defeated at Tewkesbury, Countess Anne was obliged to retire to a convent. Her elder daughter, Isabel, was already married to George, Duke of Clarence, brother of Edward IV, and now her younger daughter, the widowed Anne, was married to Richard, Duke of Gloucester, Edward IV’s other brother. The two brothers fought over the inheritance of the sisters and Countess Anne was deprived of her lands and treated as though she were ‘naturally dead’. On the accession of Henry VII, some of her lands were restored to her, on the understanding that she would bequeath them to Henry, rather than her grandson Edward, Earl of Warwick.
Beauchamp, Lady Eleanor, Duchess of Somerset, c. 1405 – 6 March 1467 Wife of Edmund Beaufort, 2nd Duke of Somerset and mother of Henry, 3rd Duke of Somerset, Eleanor was the daughter of Richard Beauchamp, 13th Earl of Warwick, and disputed the inheritance by her half-sister, Anne Beauchamp, of the earldom. This was another bone of contention between Somerset and York, as York’s ally and nephew by marriage, Richard Neville, was married to the said Anne Beauchamp, Countess of Warwick.
Beauchamp of Bletsoe, Margaret, Duchess of Somerset, 1410 – 8 August 1472 Married as her second husband John, 1st Duke of Somerset and was the mother of Lady Margaret Beaufort, Countess of Richmond. Her third marriage was to Lionel, Lord Welles, another Lancastrian, who was killed at the Battle of Towton.
Beauchamp, Richard, 13th Earl of Warwick, January, 1382 – 30 April 1439 Warwick was responsible for the upbringing and education of Henry VI from the time that the King was six years old. Warwick was famous as an honourable and chivalrous knight. After three years, Warwick was obliged to request the Regency Council to protect him from any ‘grouch’ that the King might form against him as a result of proper correction. In 1437, when it was considered that Henry had completed his education, Warwick was sent to Normandy as Lieutenant.
Beauchamp, Richard, Bishop of Salisbury, d.1481 Beauchamp was the son of Sir Walter Beauchamp, Speaker of the House of Commons. He was Chancellor of the Order of the Garter. Following the Battle of Towton in March 1461, he wrote in despair that the English deserved pity ‘even from the French.’
Beauchamp, Sir Walter d. 1 January 1430 Formerly Speaker of the House of Commons, Beauchamp was appointed to the household of Catherine de Valois, and subsequently to that of Henry VI. He became Treasurer of the Royal Household and Master of the Horse.
Beaufort, Edmund, 2nd Duke of Somerset & Count of Mortain, 1406 – 22 May 1455 Beaufort was the grandson of John of Gaunt, Duke of Lancaster. During the 1420s it was rumoured that Beaufort was engaged in an illicit relationship with the Dowager Queen, Catherine de Valois. In order to prevent Beaufort marrying the Queen, an act was passed by Parliament, under the guidance of Humphrey, Duke of Gloucester, Beaufort’s rival, to prevent widowed Queens marrying without the consent of their adult sons.
Beaufort inherited the dukedom of Somerset in 1448, from his brother John. In 1449, he became Lieutenant of the King’s forces in France, replacing Richard, Duke of York. This led to a rift between the two men, especially as Somerset had little success. He disgraced himself by abandoning his troops when the city of Rouen finally fell on 29 October 1449. Despite this, he remained in favour with his cousin, Henry VI, was on good terms with the new Queen, Margaret of Anjou, and had a leading part in the government. By 1450 Somerset and York were close to open war. Threatened by York’s men, Somerset retreated to the Tower for safety, but then emerged to retake control of government. When York became Protector, during Henry VI’s illness, Somerset was sent to the Tower, where he remained until Henry VI regained his senses. Somerset was killed at the first battle of the Wars of the Roses, at St Albans.
Beaufort, Edmund 4th Duke of Somerset, c. 1438 – 6 May 1471 Younger brother of Henry, 3rd Duke of Somerset, Somerset led the Lancastrians at Tewkesbury. Whether his military judgement was poor, or he was unenthusiastic about the Lancastrian cause or for some other, unknown reason, he retreated from a commanding position, making the Lancastrian defeat inevitable. He survived the battle, but was dragged with the other Lancastrian leaders from sanctuary in Tewkesbury Abbey and executed.
Beaufort, Henry Cardinal, Bishop of Winchester, c. 1475 – 11 April 1447 The second son of John of Gaunt by his third wife, Katherine Swynford, Beaufort was one of the most important members of the Regency Council which governed on behalf of his great-nephew, the infant Henry VI. Beaufort was Chancellor from 1424 to 1426 but was on bad terms with his nephew, Humphrey, Duke of Gloucester, who sought to become Regent rather than just a member of the Council. One of the elements of discord was Beaufort’s support of the peace party which sought to end the Hundred Years’ War, whereas Gloucester was in favour of pursuing further military campaigns. Created a Cardinal in 1426, Beaufort was one of the judges at the trial of Joan of Arc and witnessed her death.
Beaufort, Henry, 3rd Duke of Somerset, 26 January 1436 – 15 May 1464 Son of Edmund, 2nd Duke of Somerset, and Lady Eleanor Beauchamp, Beaufort inherited the dukedom on his father’s death at St Albans. He, too, was present at that battle and was severely wounded. This loss bred a desire for revenge in Beaufort which King Henry, or his advisers, tried to ameliorate by arranging a Council of Reconciliation in 1457. Unfortunately, both the Yorkists and the Lancastrians, as represented by Somerset, turned up with large bodies of retainers. It was agreed that the Yorkists would pay compensation to Somerset. The other Lords whose fathers had been killed at St Albans and their former enemies were required to walk through the streets of London in what became known as the Loveday procession. Somerset was paired with Richard Neville, Earl of Salisbury. Unfortunately, peace was not to be found.
Somerset was one of the chief Lancastrian commanders at the Battle of Towton, which took place on 29 March 1461. Towton was a stunning victory for the Yorkists and Somerset was exiled. He was captured in 1462 after entering Bamburgh in an attempt to support the Lancastrians holding out there. The new King, Edward IV, made every attempt at reconciliation with Somerset and appears to have become genuinely attached to him. It must have therefore been a bitter blow for Edward IV when Somerset was unable to renounce his allegiance to Lancaster and fought for Henry VI at Edgeley More and Hexham. Captured at Hexham on 14 May 1464, he was executed the next day.
Beaufort, Joan, Queen of Scots, 1404 – 15 July 1445 Granddaughter of John of Gaunt and his third wife, Katherine Swynford, she was married to King James I of Scotland, as part of the negotiation that freed King James from captivity in England. She had eight children by James, and acted as Regent for her son James II after her husband’s assassination. She married a second time and had three further children.
Beaufort, John, 1st Duke of Somerset, 25 March 1403 – 27 May 1444 Son of John, 1st Earl of Somerset and grandson of John of Gaunt, Duke of Lancaster, he inherited the earldom when he was about seven years old. In around 1420 he became involved in his first military expedition in France at which he was captured. He was held prisoner for some 17 years before his ransom was finally paid. On his return he swiftly married Margaret Beauchamp of Bletsoe, by whom he had a daughter, Margaret. In 1442, promoted to the rank of Duke, he led another military expedition to France, which the King’s lieutenant there, Richard, Duke of York, felt undermined his own role. Somerset was no more successful in this expedition than he had been in his first. He returned in disgrace and died shortly thereafter, possibly of suicide.
Beaufort, Lady Margaret Countess of Richmond, 31 May 1443 – 29 June 1509 Daughter of John, 1st Duke of Somerset, Lady Margaret was married at the age of about 12 to Edmund Tudor, Earl of Richmond, half-brother of Henry VI. She was widowed and a mother within 18 months. Her second marriage was to Sir Henry Stafford, a younger son of the Lancastrian, Humphrey, 1st Duke of Buckingham. Stafford fought for Lancaster at Towton, but then swore allegiance to Edward IV. Margaret’s son, Henry, was put in the care of the Yorkist William Herbert. Margaret was widowed again for a second time when Stafford died at the Battle of Barnet, fighting for York. Margaret then married Lord Thomas Stanley, an adherent of Edward IV. During the second part of Edward IV’s reign, Margaret attempted to have her son, Henry Tudor, now in exile in Brittany, rehabilitated, and possibly married to Edward IV’s daughter, Elizabeth. When Richard III became King, Margaret, a well-known figure at court, attended his wife at the coronation. However, Margaret was working behind-the-scenes to support an invasion by her son. On Henry’s victory at the Battle of Bosworth, 22 August 1485, Margaret assumed a position of power and influence until her death in 1509.
Beaufort, Thomas, Duke of Exeter, c. 1377 – 31 December 1426 The third son of John of Gaunt, Duke of Lancaster, and his third wife, Katherine Swynford, Exeter was Lieutenant of Normandy during Henry V’s reign. He was a negotiator at the Treaty of Troyes, which arranged the marriage of Henry V to Catherine de Valois, and agreed that Henry V would inherit his father-in-law, Charles VI’s, kingdom. Captured at the Battle of Bauge in 1421, he was released in 1422 and acted as executor of the will of Henry V. He was given overall responsibility for the governance of Henry VI’s person and was responsible for choosing his household.
Beaumont, John, 1st Viscount Beaumont, Constable of England c. 1409 – 10 July 1460 Beaumont was a member of Henry VI’s Council and became Constable of England in 1445. He was also steward of the Duchy of Lancaster, the King’s personal estate. He was one of the Lords commissioned to suppress Jack Cade’s rebellion in 1450. During York’s first Protectorate (March 1453 – January 1454) Beaumont was a member of his Council.
Despite his marriage to Katherine Neville, Dowager Duchess of Norfolk, who was the sister York’s Duchess, Cecily, Beaumont remained firmly loyal to Henry VI. In 1459 he was one of the Lords who worked with Margaret of Anjou to achieve the attainder of the Yorkist Lords. In 1460 he was killed at the Battle of Northampton, a Yorkist victory.
Beaumont, William, 2nd Viscount Beaumont, April 1438 – 19 December 1507 William Beaumont fought alongside his father for Lancaster at the Battle of Northampton in 1460, following which he inherited his father’s title and estates. He was also in the Lancastrian army at Towton and following the Yorkist victory was attainted and stripped of his titles and lands. Like many other Lancastrians he received a pardon from Edward IV but his lands were not returned. Unreconciled, he continued to support Lancastrian rear-guard actions. He was taken prisoner and held at Hammes by Sir James Blount, the Yorkist captain of Calais. When Blount switched sides, Beaumont was released and joined Henry Tudor in Brittany. He was part of the invasion fleet and subsequent victory by Henry at Bosworth. He was restored in titles and lands in the Parliament of November 1485. In later life he appears to have suffered some sort of mental illness, and was confined to the care of his old colleague, John de Vere, 13th Earl of Oxford.
Bernard VII, Count of Armagnac, 1360 – 12 June 1418 Bernard was the father-in-law of Charles of Orleans, who, when his father, Louis of Orleans, was assassinated by Philip the Bold, Duke of Burgundy, built an alliance with Bernard to take control of the government of Charles’ uncle, the incapacitated Charles VI of France. The feud between the Burgundians and the Armagnacs was a byword for savagery. The alliance of the Burgundians with the English enabled the victories of Henry V in the early 15th century.
Bourchier, John, 1st Baron Berners d. May 1474 Lord Berners was Constable of Windsor Castle and a member of Henry VI’s Council. He was present, on the Lancastrian side, at the first Battle of St Albans, but was unharmed.
Boteler, Ralph, 1st Baron Sudeley, c 1394 – 2 May 1473 A Lancastrian supporter, and Treasurer of England.
Bettini, de Sforza, Milanese Ambassador to Louis XI, d. after 31 August 1497 Probably a relative of the Sforza Dukes of Milan, de Bettini was sent as ambassador to France in around 1467. He sent a number of reports about happenings in England to his master, including the information that Edward of York was unlikely to regain his throne after having been ousted by Warwick. As it happens he had been misinformed and he later complained that it was almost impossible to find out the truth of what was happening in England. He became a servant of Lorenzo the Magnificent, the ruler of Florence, and, after Lorenzo’s death disappeared into gaol in 1497, never to be seen again.
Blacman, John Blacman was Henry VI’s confessor, and wrote a memoir about his former master. Blacman emphasised Henry’s humility, religious faith and simplicity.
Blake, Thomas In 1477, Thomas Blake, together with John Stacey and Thomas Burdet, were arrested on a charge of attempting to foresee the King’s death by means of sorcery. Blake was pardoned, whilst the other two were hanged.
Blount, Sir William c. 1449 - 4 April 1471 Blount was an ally of Edward IV, killed at the Battle of Barnet.
Boleyn, Anne, Queen of England c. 1503 – 1536 Anne, daughter of one of Henry VIII’s courtiers, spent her formative years in France, before joining the English court as one of Queen Katherine’s maids-of-honour in 1521. It is not known for certain when Anne caught Henry’s eye, but sometime during the period 1525-6 he fell violently in love with her. This passion coincided with his fears for the succession as Queen Katherine was past childbearing and they had only a daughter, Mary. Henry decided, contrary to all custom, that he wanted to marry Anne Boleyn, she having refused to be his mistress.
Anne’s experience at the French court had introduced her to modern religious thought, and she was seen as a religious reformer. Wolsey was unable to arrange for Henry’s marriage to be annulled and Anne, working with Cromwell and Cranmer, was involved in the steps taken to divide the English Church from Rome. Anne was crowned in 1533, but the fact that she failed to produce the son whom Henry so much desired led him to question the marriage. Anne was charged with adultery and incest, tried, convicted and executed within a month.
Bonville, Sir William, 1st Baron Bonville, c. 30 August 1393 – 17 February 1461 The clash between the Bonvilles and Courtenays for pre-eminence in Devon was one of the long-running noble feuds that contributed to the Wars of the Roses.
Bonville fought for York at the Battle of Northampton where Henry VI was captured. Bonville was holding the King at the Battle of St Albans, when the Yorkists were defeated. He was executed immediately after the battle.
Bourchier, Henry, 1st Earl of Essex, c. 1404 – 4 April 1483 A descendant of Edward III through his mother, Anne of Gloucester, in his early days Bourchier fought in France and was created a baron in 1445. He supported York, who was the brother of Bourchier’s wife, Isabel, at the 2nd Battle of St Albans and Edward of York at Towton. Following that Yorkist victory, he was granted the earldom of Essex by the new King, Edward IV. He served Edward as Lord High Treasurer, and attended the coronation of Queen Elizabeth Woodville.
Bourchier, Humphrey, Lord Cromwell, d. 14 April 1471 Son of Henry Bourchier, 1st Earl of Essex and first cousin of Edward IV, he was Lord Cromwell in right of his wife, Joan Cromwell. He was killed fighting for York at the Battle of Tewkesbury.
Bourchier, Thomas Archbishop of Canterbury c. 1405 – 30 March 1486 A descendant of Edward III through his mother, Anne of Gloucester. Educated at Oxford he entered the Church, became Bishop of Worcester, Chancellor of the University of Oxford, Bishop of Ely and finally, in 1454, Archbishop of Canterbury. As was common, he combined the latter post with the position of Lord Chancellor. By 1459, Bourchier was beginning to favour York and he was present with the Yorkist army at the Battle of Northampton. In 1483, Bourchier, now a Cardinal, persuaded Elizabeth Woodville to release her younger son, Richard of Shrewsbury, Duke of York, to the care of his uncle, now crowned Richard III, by Bourchier. Bourchier presided at the coronation of Henry VII and married the King to Elizabeth of York.
Bourchier, Sir Thomas, d. 1492 Suspected of plotting against Richard III, he was imprisoned in the Tower in 1483. Whilst being moved to another location, he and Sir Walter Hungerford escaped and joined Henry Tudor’s army at Bosworth.
Bouttiler, Dame Alice Henry VI’s Governess. (Dame was a title used to refer to a knight’s widow. During her husband’s lifetime she would be named Lady.)
Bridget of York, 10 November 1480 -1517 Bridget was the youngest child of Edward IV and Elizabeth Woodville. She was carried to her christening by Lady Margaret Beaufort, Countess of Richmond. She became a nun at Dartford Priory, dying in 1517.
Brackenbury, Sir Robert d.22 August 1485 Brackenbury was Treasurer of Richard III’s household when the latter was still Duke of Gloucester. On 17 July 1483 he was appointed as Constable of the Tower of London. He was in the front line at the Battle of Bosworth, where he was killed.
Brandon, Sir William 1456 – 22 August 1485 Brandon, a native of East Anglia, appears to have led rather a wild life in his youth. He was arrested for rape but either was not convicted or was pardoned. He joined in Buckingham’s rebellion against Richard III. He was pardoned for this but left for France and was involved in the relief of the siege of Hammes. He joined Henry Tudor in Brittany and was part of the invasion force. He was killed at the Battle of Bosworth where he acted as Henry’s standard-bearer. His son, Charles, Duke of Suffolk, was the second husband of Henry VII’s daughter, Mary, the French Queen.
Bray, Reginald c. 1440 - 24 June 1503 Bray was a member of the household of Sir Henry Stafford, husband of Lady Margaret Beaufort, Countess of Richmond. He remained in her service following the death of Stafford, and was a go-between for the Countess with Henry Stafford, 2nd Duke of Buckingham, in connection with Buckingham’s rebellion against Richard III in 1483. Attainted for his part in the rebellion, he escaped to France where he joined Lady Margaret’s son, Henry Tudor, in Brittany. Once Henry became King, Bray became Chancellor of the Duchy of Lancaster and was one of Henry’s most trusted councillors, acting as executor of his will.
Brotherman, Margaret Laundress in the household of Henry VI, when he was a child.
Burdet, Thomas d. 19 May 1477 Burdet was a servant of George, Duke of Clarence, and was arrested, together with John Stacey and Thomas Blake, for attempting to foretell, by sorcery, the death of the King. He was found guilty, and hanged at Tyburn. Shortly thereafter the Duke of Clarence announced the innocence of the men during a Council meeting.
Bureau, Jean Bureau commanded the cavalry at the Battle of Castillon on 17 July 1453, annihilating the English army under Sir John Talbot, Earl of Shrewsbury. The shock of this defeat precipitated Henry VI’s descent into mental illness.
Burgh, Sir Thomas, of Gainsborough c. 1430 - 18 March 1496 Burgh was a bodyguard and close associate of Edward IV. During 1470, a private feud with Richard, Lord Welles led to a battle between Edward IV and allies of the Earl of Warwick.
Burgh, Walter de A Londoner who accused Sir William Oldhall, Chamberlain to Richard, Duke of York and formerly a speaker of the House of Commons, of looting the goods of Edmund Beaufort, 2nd Duke of Somerset. He was attacked in the street, which Somerset believed was on the orders of Oldhall, who he had dragged from sanctuary in response to the attack
Butler, Lady Eleanor nee Talbot c. 1436 - 30 June 1468 The daughter of Sir John Talbot, Earl of Shrewsbury, and Margaret Beauchamp (sister of Eleanor Beauchamp, Duchess of Somerset), Lady Eleanor was married at the age of 13 to Sir Thomas Butler who died sometime before 4 March 1461. In 1483, Richard, Duke of Gloucester, claimed that Lady Eleanor had been secretly married to his brother, Edward IV, and that therefore Edward’s subsequent marriage to Elizabeth Woodville was invalid, making his children by Elizabeth, including Edward V, illegitimate.
Butler, James, Earl of Ormond and Wiltshire 24 November 1420 – 1 May 1461 Ormond, initially an associate of the Duke of York, married Somerset’s daughter, Lady Eleanor Beaufort, in around 1458. He was given the position Lieutenant of Ireland, when York was relieved of that post. He fought for Lancaster at the Battle of Mortimer’s Cross on 2 February 1461, and again at Towton. Following Towton he was executed by the victorious Yorkists. At one time he was described as the best looking man in the kingdom.
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