Chapter 9 : Talbot - Young
Talbot, John, first Earl of Shrewsbury, c 1384 – 17 July 1453 Known as ‘Old Talbot’, Shrewsbury was one of the most experienced English commanders in France. In his early career he had fought with Henry IV against Owain Glyndwr’s insurgency, and later held the post of Lord Lieutenant of Ireland. It was at Shrewsbury’s orders that a detailed family tree showing Henry VI’s valid claim to the throne of France was created. He achieved many notable victories against the French during his career but was killed at the Battle of Castillon, which destroyed England’s centuries' long hold of Aquitaine. He was the father of Lady Eleanor Butler, alleged to have been secretly pre-contracted to marry Edward IV.
Tempest, John Tempest attempted, but failed, to capture Henry VI in July 1465, when the deposed king was in hiding in the North of England.
Tempest, Sir Richard of Waddington Hall He hid the fugitive Henry VI in July 1465.
Thomas of Lancaster, Duke of Clarence, before 25 November 1387 – 22 March 1421 The second son of Henry IV, he accompanied his brother, Henry V, throughout the King’s campaigns in France. He was present at the Treaty of Troyes, and then remained in command in France whilst Henry V returned to England with his new bride, Catherine de Valois. In March 1421 he was killed in the Battle of Bauge, a serious defeat for the English army.
Thomas of Woodstock, Duke of Gloucester, 7 January 1355 – 9 September 1397 The youngest son of Edward III, he was on very bad terms with his nephew, Richard II, being one of the Lords Appellant who sought to control Richard in 1388. Richard bided his time but when Gloucester was murdered at Calais in 1397, there was little doubt that it was at Richard’s orders. Gloucester was the grandfather of Humphrey Stafford, 1st Duke of Buckingham.
Thomas, David Like most of his family, David was a Lancastrian supporter. When his brother, Morgan Thomas, besieged Jasper, Earl of Pembroke and Henry Tudor in Pembroke Castle in 1471, David created a diversion enabling the Tudors to escape.
Thomas, Morgan Although the Thomas family had been Lancastrian, Morgan Thomas changed sides when his father-in-law, Sir Roger Vaughan, was killed by Jasper Tudor, Earl of Pembroke. Thomas besieged Jasper and Henry Tudor, at Pembroke Castle in 1471.
Thomas, Sir Rhys ap, 1449 – 1525 Thomas was from a Lancastrian family that was forced into exile for a period early in the reign of Edward IV. Returning in 1467, Thomas and his family were apparently reconciled to York. He was given high office under Richard III, and declined to take part in Buckingham’s rebellion. He was requested to send his son as a hostage to Richard III, but did not do so. When Henry Tudor invaded it was not clear whether Thomas would block his way or support him. In the event he chose to support Henry, and was at the Battle of Bosworth. He became one of Henry VII’s Privy Councillors.
Tiptoft, John, 1st Baron Tiptoft, d. 27 January 1443 A trusted servant and councillor of Henry V, he was one of the men responsible for the physical safety of the young Henry VI.
Torrigiano, Pietro, 24 November 1472 – August 1528 The master bronze sculptor who cast the effigies of Lady Margaret Beaufort, Countess of Richmond, Henry VII and Elizabeth of York over their tombs in Westminster Abbey.
Trueblood, John, d. 1468 Trueblood was one of the defenders of Harlech Castle, which was besieged by the Yorkists between 1461 and 1468. When the Castle fell, Trueblood was taken to London with other members of the garrison and executed.
Tuchet, James, 5th Baron Audley c. 1398 – 23 September 1459 A veteran of the French wars, he was a supporter of the Lancastrians, and in September 1459 received orders to prevent the Yorkist Earl of Salisbury rendezvousing with York and Warwick at Ludlow. He met with the Yorkists at the Battle of Blore Heath, but his forces were vanquished and Audley was killed.
Tuchet, John, 6th Baron Audley, 1423 – 26 September 1490 Taken prisoner by the Yorkist Earl of Warwick, he was persuaded to transfer his allegiance from Lancaster to York. He fought for Edward IV at the battles of Northampton, Mortimer’s Cross, Barnet and Tewkesbury and received a number of high offices in Edward’s government.
Tudor, Edmund, 1st Earl of Richmond, 11 June 1430 – 3 November 1456 Edmund was the first son born to Catherine de Valois, Dowager Queen of England, following her second marriage to Owen Tudor. After his mother’s death, he and his siblings were put into the care of Katherine de la Pole, Abbess of Barking, and brought up at the expense of their half-brother, Henry VI. When Edmund was about 22, he was granted the earldom of Richmond and the hand of the wealthy child heiress Lady Margaret Beaufort. Initially on good terms with the Duke of York, he became embroiled in a turf war in South Wales with Sir William Herbert and Sir Walter Devereux, retainers of York’s. As part of this feud, Edmund was imprisoned in Carmarthen Castle and died shortly after release, possibly of plague. He left a pregnant 13-year-old wife.
Tudor, Jasper, Earl of Pembroke and Duke of Bedford, 1431 – 26 December 1495 The second son of Owen Tudor and Dowager Queen Catherine de Valois, he was granted the earldom of Pembroke by his half-brother, Henry VI. He fought energetically for Henry and was also a stalwart supporter of his widowed sister-in-law, Lady Margaret Beaufort, Countess of Richmond and his nephew, Henry Tudor. He lost the Battle of Mortimer’s Cross, but escaped and joined the other Lancastrian exiles in Scotland. His earldom was granted to Sir William Herbert along with the wardship of Jasper’s nephew, Henry Tudor. In 1468 he led a brief invasion but was forced to retreat. In 1469, when Warwick was attempting to put Henry VI back on the throne, Jasper was part of the invading army. The following year, when Edward IV returned from exile, Jasper raised an army in Wales and was attempting to join up with the other Lancastrians, under Queen Margaret and Prince Edward of Lancaster, when the latter force was annihilated at Tewkesbury. Jasper and his nephew escaped across the channel to Brittany where they remained for nearly 14 years, before a brief spell in France, where the son of Jasper’s cousin was now King. Jasper accompanied his nephew to Bosworth and was handsomely rewarded for his many years of loyalty. He was created Duke of Bedford and married to Catherine Woodville, sister of Queen Elizabeth Woodville and widow of Henry Stafford, 2nd Duke of Buckingham. Jasper had no children.
Tudor, Katherine, c. 1437 A daughter of Catherine de Valois and Owen Tudor, who died in infancy.
Tudor, Katherine, 2 February 1503 – 11 February 1503 The last child of Henry VII and Elizabeth of York, she died, along with her mother, a few days after her birth.
Tudor, Owen, c. 1400 – 4 February 1461 Owen Tudor probably fought in France in the armies of Henry V, and became a member of the household of Henry’s widow, Catherine de Valois. The couple married secretly despite a Parliamentary act forbidding anyone to marry the widowed Queen without specific consent from her adult son. On Catherine’s death he attempted to return home to Wales but was detained and forced to return to London. After initially being released, he was again arrested and sent to prison in Newgate. He escaped Newgate but was again arrested and returned to custody in Windsor Castle eventually in 1439 he was released. He fought for his stepson Henry VI at the Battle of Mortimer’s Cross. The victorious Yorkists captured him and he was executed in the marketplace at Hereford.
Twynho. Ankarette, d. 15 April 1479 Ankarette was a waiting woman to Isabel Neville, Duchess of Clarence. Two years after the Duchess’ death, a band of retainers of her widower, George, Duke of Clarence, broke into Ankarette’s home, in Somerset and took her by force to Warwick where she was tried and condemned for the murder of her mistress, two years previously. She was hanged immediately. There was no truth in the charge.
Tyrrell, Sir James c 1455 – 6 May 1502 Tyrrell was a retainer of Richard III, but absent from England at the time of Bosworth. In 1501 he was arrested for complicity in an alleged conspiracy surrounding Edmund de la Pole, 3rd Earl of Suffolk. He was executed and it was later claimed that, whilst in prison, he had confessed to the murder of Edward V and Richard of Shrewsbury Duke of York.
Vaughan, Sir Roger, d. 1471 The Vaughans were supporters of Richard, Duke of York. Sir Roger fought at the Battle of Mortimer’s Cross following which he was responsible for the execution of Owen Tudor. After Tewkesbury, Vaughan was sent to try to capture Jasper Tudor, Earl of Pembroke and his nephew, Henry Tudor. He was ambushed by Pembroke and executed in revenge for the death of Pembroke’s father.
Vaughan, Sir Thomas, d. June 1483 Chamberlain to Edward V, as Prince of Wales, he was accompanying the new King to London when the party was intercepted by Richard, Duke of Gloucester. Vaughan was arrested by Gloucester’s men and was executed in June 1483.
Vaux, Lady Katherine, née Peniston, d. after 1509 Lady-in-waiting to Queen Margaret of Anjou, Lady Vaux accompanied her through all her tribulations and was exiled with her in France. Following Margaret’s death she returned to England and was granted pensions by both Edward IV and Richard III. On Henry VII’s accession, Lady Vaux returned to court and played a full part in court ceremonial.
Vergil, Polydore, c. 1470 – 18 April 1555 Vergil, a native of Urbino, was patronised by Henry VII, for whom he began his Anglica Historia, a major source for the history of the Wars of the Roses.
Vere, Aubrey de, 20 February 1462 Son of the 12th Earl of Oxford, de Vere was accused of plotting against the life of Edward IV and executed.
Vere, John de, 12th Earl of Oxford, 20 February 1462 Oxford took no part in the Wars of the Roses but in early 1462 he was accused of plotting against Edward IV and was executed.
Vere, John de, 13th Earl of Oxford, 8 September 1442 – 10 March 1513 Although his father and brother had been executed for an alleged plot against Edward IV, Oxford was permitted to take up his inheritance and played a part in the Yorkist court. In 1469 he joined his brother-in-law, Richard Neville, Earl of Warwick, in rebellion against Edward IV and joined the Lancastrians in France. On the return of Henry VI, Oxford took part in the King’s procession to St Paul’s. He commanded one of the Lancastrian wings at Barnet but the similarity of his badge with that of Edward of York’s sun-in-splendour led to confusion in the ranks of the Lancastrians leading them to turn on each other. Oxford escaped and continued to attack Yorkist positions. Eventually captured was imprisoned in the fortress of Hammes near Calais from which he eventually escaped to join Henry Tudor in Brittany. Oxford was one of the leading commanders of Henry Tudor’s forces at the Battle of Bosworth. He remained one of Henry VII’s most valued and trusted generals and councillors.
Warbeck, Perkin, c. 1474 – 23 November 1499 Very little can be said with certainty as to the background of Pierrechon de Werebecq, but in 1491, he appeared in Cork, Ireland as the apprentice of a silk merchant. Yorkist sympathisers claimed to recognise him as Richard of Shrewsbury, Duke of York, younger son of Edward IV. The claim gained considerable support both at home and abroad. Charles VIII of France, James IV of Scotland and Margaret, Dowager Duchess of Burgundy, who claimed to recognise Warbeck as her nephew. All supported him financially. After five years and a couple of failed invasions, Warbeck was captured by Henry VII’s men. He told the King that he was, in fact, the son of a Flemish merchant. Henry VII, rather than executing him, kept him at the Royal Court and his wife, Lady Katherine Gordon, was amongst the Queen’s ladies. Perhaps tired of this silken imprisonment, Warbeck tried to escape and was sent to the Tower of London. In 1499 he was tried for attempting to escape and hanged.
Welles, Richard, 7th Baron Wells, d. 12 March 1470 Lord Welles and his son Sir Robert, were entangled in a local feud with Sir Thomas Burgh of Gainsborough, one of Edward IV’s bodyguard. On being told to desist, they ignored the King’s orders, so the King marched against them. The rebels were routed at the Battle of Losecote Field. Lord Welles was killed.
Welles, Sir Robert, 8th Baron Willoughby d’Eresby, d. 12 March 1470 The Willoughbys and the Burghs vied for pre-eminence in the county of Lincolnshire. This erupted into private warfare with Sir Thomas Burgh of Gainsborough, resulting in Edward IV bringing an army to quell the disturbances. Welles was killed at the Battle of Losecote Field.
Wenlock, Sir John, first Baron Wenlock, c. 1400 – 1471 Wenlock fought for the Lancastrians at the first Battle of St Albans but then changed sides, and was with Salisbury’s men at the Battle of Blore Heath, a Yorkist victory. He continued in his Yorkist loyalty through the battles of Mortimer’s Cross, second Battle of St Albans and Towton. Following Towton he was granted a barony. Wenlock was a close associate of the Earl of Warwick, and switched sides back to Lancaster with Warwick in 1469. He was one of the senior Lancastrian commanders at the Battle of Tewkesbury, and, like most of the others, was killed.
Whethamstede, John, Abbot of St Albans Following the second Battle of St Albans on 17 February 1461, the Abbot wrote of the shocking destruction wrought by the Lancastrian troops on the city.
Wolsey, Thomas, Cardinal and Archbishop of York, c. 1470 – 29 November 1530Wolsey was (probably) the son of an Ipswich grazier. Exceptionally intelligent, he graduated from Magdalen College, Oxford, aged just fifteen and was ordained priest in 1498. He entered the service of Henry VII in 1507 as Royal Chaplain, and secretary to Bishop Foxe, Lord Privy Seal. Wolsey was appointed Almoner to Henry VIII in 1509 and began a rapid climb to power. Wolsey was not just Henry VIII’s Lord Chancellor, he had a warm personal relationship with the King, although he was never popular with Queen Katherine or the members of the nobility who considered him arrogant and proud. Wolsey lived in spectacular style, creating the masterpiece Hampton Court from a small manor house. He was an important figure in European politics, working with Henry to maintain a foreign policy that would enhance the prestige of England with the other European princes. Wolsey’s failure to obtain an annulment of Henry’s first marriage, and the personal animosity of Anne Boleyn, led to his catastrophic fall from power in 1529. Despite some dithering by Henry, he never regained influence, and in 1530 was accused of treason, dying en-route to London.
Woodville, Anne, Lady Bourchier, circa 1438 – 30 July 1489 Sister of Queen Elizabeth Woodville.
Woodville, Anthony, 2nd Earl Rivers, c. 1440 – 25 June 1483 Son of Sir Richard Woodville, and Jacquetta of Luxembourg, Duchess of Bedford, Woodville was a loyal Lancastrian, fighting at the Battle of Towton. After the Lancastrian defeat, following which his sister Elizabeth married the new King Edward IV, Woodville served his brother-in-law equally loyally. He was renowned both for his jousting skills and his piety. He lived the life of an ideal knight – fighting in tournaments, going on pilgrimage and promoting learning. He was a patron of the printer William Caxton. He was appointed as tutor to his nephew Edward, Prince of Wales and supervised the boy’s education at Ludlow. When Edward became King, Rivers began the journey back to London with the 12-year-old boy, as ordered by the Council. On 29 April, the party was intercepted at Stony Stratford by the King’s paternal uncle, Richard, Duke of Gloucester. After a convivial evening of eating and drinking with Gloucester and Buckingham, the following day Rivers was arrested, despite his nephew’s protests, and sent to one of Gloucester’s castles, where he was executed.
Woodville, Catherine, Duchess of Buckingham and Duchess of Bedford, c. 1458 – 18 May 1497 The youngest sister of Queen Elizabeth Woodville, she was married to the Queen’s ward, Henry, 2nd Duke of Buckingham, by whom she had four children. The marriage is alleged to have been unhappy. When Henry VII became King, the widowed Catherine was married to his uncle, Jasper Tudor, Duke of Bedford. She married a third time to a far less exalted gentleman, presumably for love.
Woodville, Sir Edward d. 1488 One of the younger sons of Sir Richard Woodville and Jacquetta, Duchess of Bedford, when his sister married Edward IV, he became a friend and companion of the King. He served under Richard, Duke of Gloucester in the Scottish wars, being knighted by Gloucester. On the death of Edward IV, Woodville was given the position of Admiral of the Fleet. When Gloucester became Richard III, the majority of the fleet accepted him, but Woodville, presumably aware of the execution of his brother, escaped to Brittany, where he joined Henry Tudor.
Woodville, Elizabeth, Queen of England, 3 February 1437 – 8 June 1492 The oldest daughter of Sir Richard Woodville and Jacquetta, Duchess of Bedford, Elizabeth was married in 1453 to Sir John Grey of Groby, by whom she had two sons. She was widowed when her husband was killed at the second Battle of St Albans. In May 1464, Edward IV secretly married Elizabeth. When he was obliged to announce the marriage to his courtiers, many of whom were weighing up the relative merits of marriages to princesses of France, Italian duchies and Castile, the court was horrified. Elizabeth’s low social position (derived from her father rather than her aristocratic mother) simply made her unsuitable to be a Queen. Edward’s motives have usually been characterised as entirely based on personal affection, however Jones theorises that it was, at least in part, a deliberate decision to create a circle of supporters who would be entirely dependent on the King himself for favour and whom he could rely.
Elizabeth bore the King nine children of whom eight lived beyond infancy. It appears however that the Nevilles, at least, where never reconciled to her position. Some of the resentment can be attributed to the fact that her numerous brothers and sisters were married off to all of the wealthiest and most eligible heirs in the country. When Edward IV was forced into exile in 1470, Elizabeth retreated to sanctuary at Westminster Abbey where she gave birth to the couple’s first son. When Edward IV died, Elizabeth was not named as Regent for her son Edward V but a number of the nobles feared that she and her family would have too much influence over the boy, who was only 12. They agreed that it would be appropriate for Edward IV’s brother, Richard, Duke of Gloucester, to become Lord Protector. When Elizabeth discovered that Gloucester had taken custody of Edward V and that her brother and her son, Sir Richard Grey, had been arrested, she took her younger son and her daughters back into sanctuary at Westminster Abbey. After prolonged persuasion she agreed to let her second son leave sanctuary to join his brother. The public were informed that Elizabeth’s marriage to Edward IV had not been valid and that her son was not the legitimate King. Eventually, Elizabeth left sanctuary with her daughters who were received at the court of Richard III and his wife, Anne Neville. Elizabeth had entered into secret discussions with Lady Margaret Beaufort, Countess of Richmond, regarding the possibility that her eldest daughter, Elizabeth of York, might marry Lady Margaret’s son, Henry Tudor, should he overthrow Richard III. When Henry Tudor did become king, Elizabeth was restored to her position as Queen Dowager and for the first years of Henry’s reign was a central figure at court. She retired to a convent in 1490, whether willingly or under duress is disputed.
Woodville, Joan, Lady Grey, d. before 1492 Sister of Queen Elizabeth Woodville and sometimes named as Eleanor.
Woodville, Sir John, c. 1445 – 1469 Brother of Queen Elizabeth Woodville, he made a marriage so mercenary as even to shock the avarice of the time when he married Lady Katherine Neville, Dowager Duchess of Norfolk who was 45 years his senior. John Woodville was one of the men accused by Warwick of leading Edward IV astray and providing an excuse for his rebellion. Following the Battle of Edgecote, won by Warwick, Woodville was hunted down and executed.
Woodville, Lionel, Bishop of Salisbury, c. 1447 – 1484 A younger brother of Elizabeth Woodville, who was Bishop of Salisbury from 1482. On Edward IV’s death he went into sanctuary with his sister at Westminster Abbey and was attainted in the Parliament of January 1484.
Woodville, Richard, 1st Earl Rivers, c 1405 – 12 August 1469 Woodville was a retainer of John of Lancaster, Duke of Bedford and fought with him in France. On the Duke’s death he secretly married the widowed Duchess, Jacquetta of Luxembourg, a presumption for which the pair were fined. He subsequently held a number of military positions under Henry VI. He fought for Lancaster at Towton but was reconciled to York thereafter. When Warwick rebelled and captured Edward IV, Rivers was one of the men that Warwick had hunted down to be given a show trial at Kenilworth Castle, following which he was executed.
Wyndham, Sir John, d. 1502 Associated with Edmund de la Pole, 3rd Duke of Suffolk, Wyndham was executed in 1502.
Young, Thomas, MP for Bristol. A loyal to Richard, Duke of York in the 1451 Parliament, Young suggested that the Henry VI should name an heir, suggesting York. This suggestion was greeted by an almost immediate dissolution of Parliament.
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