Chapter 8 : Quelennec - Swynford
Quelennec, Jean du, Admiral of Brittany In 1472 Jasper Tudor, Earl of Pembroke and his nephew, Henry, were maintained in the Château of du Quelennec, on the orders of Duke Francis II of Brittany.
Radcliffe, John, 8th Baron FitzWalter, d. April 1471 A Yorkist Lord killed in the skirmishes at Ferrybridge, before the Battle of Towton.
Radcliffe, John, 9th Baron FitzWalter, 1452 – c. 24 November 1496 During the reign of Henry VII he was involved in the Perkin Warbeck rebellion, and attainted. He was not initially executed but when he attempted to escape from prison in Calais he was beheaded.
Ratcliffe, Sir Richard d. 22 August 1485 One of Richard III’s closest associates, the second in the old rhyme ‘the cat, the rat, and Lovell the dog, rule all England under a hog’, he was killed at the Battle of Bosworth.
René I, Duke of Anjou, Bar, Lorraine, King of Naples, Jerusalem and Sicily. January 1409 – 1480 Despite his many grand titles, René was perpetually broke and unlucky in war. His daughter, Margaret, became the wife of Henry VI of England.
Richard, 3rd Duke of York, 21 September 1411 – 30 December 1460 Richard embodied two claims to the throne of England, one through his mother’s descent from Lionel, Duke of Clarence, second son of Edward III, and the other through his paternal descent from Edmund, Duke of York, of Edward III. Following the execution of his father for rebellion against Henry IV, York had been granted as a ward to Ralph Neville, first Earl of Westmorland. He married Westmorland’s daughter, Cecily, in 1429 and they had a large family. York, like all of the other men of his generation, fought in France. He was appointed as Lord Lieutenant of Normandy and had some success there. Unfortunately, however, he was locked in a bitter rivalry with the Duke of Somerset, another royal cousin. Somerset was favoured by Henry VI and Margaret of Anjou, and this led to York feeling that he was not being given the position in government that his seniority merited. On York’s return from France, he was appointed in 1447 as Lord Lieutenant of Ireland for a period of 10 years which, more or less, amounted to banishment. Having left England only in 1449, York returned without permission in 1450 to a country rapidly descending into chaos. Henry VI refused his request to become his most senior minister, merely inviting him to join the King’s Council.
When the King fell into a catatonic stupor, York was given the position of Lord Protector, much to the disgruntlement of Somerset. During this period he seems to have made attempts to govern fairly and without excessive preference of his own supporters, although he did have Somerset confined to the Tower. When Henry VI regained his senses, York was dismissed and much of his work undone. Matters went from bad to worse and eventually York took up arms against the King at the first Battle of St Albans. Following the battle, York was eager to prove that he had no dishonourable intentions and reaffirmed his loyalty to the King. Unfortunately matters did not improve and following the Battle of Northampton in 1460, Richard claimed the throne himself. The other Lords would not agree, however it was decided that whilst Henry would remain King the rest of his life, Richard would be his successor, disinheriting Henry’s young son, Edward of Lancaster. This was never going to be acceptable to Queen Margaret and many other Lancastrian supporters. Open war broke out and Richard and his second son, Edmund, Earl of Rutland, were killed at the Battle of Wakefield on 30 December 1460. Jones’ portrait of the Duke of York is of a man with good intentions but blinded by his own self-importance.
Richard II, King of England, 6 January 1367 – c. 14 February 1400 The son of Edward, the Black Prince, Richard inherited the throne from his grandfather, Edward III, in 1377 when he was just 10. He showed great personal courage at the age of 14 when he faced down the Peasants Revolt but he became increasingly tyrannical as his reign progressed. He was deposed (and probably murdered, although he may have committed suicide) by his cousin, Henry of Bolingbroke, who reigned as Henry IV. Richard had married twice but had no children, and had named as his heir, Edmund, Earl of March, the grandson of Edward III’s second son, Lionel, Duke of Clarence. March transmitted his claim to his own great-nephew, Richard, Duke of York.
Richard III, King of England, October 1452 – 22 August 1485 Richard was the youngest son of Richard, Duke of York, and Cecily Neville. He spent much of his childhood in the care of his cousin, Richard Neville, Earl of Warwick. Given the title of Duke of Gloucester, he was a loyal lieutenant to his brother, Edward IV, but quarrelled with his other brother, George, Duke of Clarence, over the inheritance of their wives, who were sisters. Richard played a leading part in the Battles of Barnet and of Tewkesbury. He acted as the King’s lieutenant in the North during Edward IV’s reign, in an uneasy relationship with Henry Percy, Duke of Northumberland. On Edward’s death, Richard, warned by Lord Hastings that the new King Edward V’s maternal relatives, the Woodvilles, intended to dominate a new government, headed swiftly towards London. He met the young Edward V at Stony Stratford, and arrested the boy’s uncle, Anthony Woodville, Earl Rivers, and his half-brother, Sir Richard Grey. Richard, having sworn fealty to Edward, proceeded to London. It was agreed that Richard would take the position of Lord Protector. The King’s Coronation was postponed for some weeks but never took place. Richard announced that the marriage of Edward IV and Elizabeth Woodville had been invalid and that therefore Edward V and his siblings were illegitimate. He was crowned as Richard III on 22 June 1483. Almost immediately rebellions broke out, the most significant being that led by his erstwhile supporter Henry Stafford, 2nd Duke of Buckingham. This was quashed. Richard invested his son, Edward of Middleham, as Prince of Wales, but was heartbroken when the boy, his only legitimate child, died on 4 April 1484. He was aware that many supporters of his late brother were leaving England to join the Lancastrian claimant, Henry Tudor, in Brittany. In the summer of 1485 Richard, anticipating an invasion, summoned his troops to Leicester. On 22 August, Richard was defeated and killed at the Battle of Bosworth. If you want to know what Jones thinks happened to Edward V and his brother, you will have to read his book!
Richard of Shrewsbury, Duke of York, 17 August 1483 – probably summer 1485 Richard was the second son of Edward IV and Elizabeth Woodville. When it became apparent that his 12-year-old brother, Edward V, would be dominated by his uncle, Richard, Duke of Gloucester, Queen Elizabeth took Richard and his sisters into sanctuary in Westminster Abbey. She was persuaded to release the boy, who joined his brother in the Tower of London and was never seen again.
Rieux, Jean de, Marshal of Brittany De Rieux had custody of Henry Tudor in Brittany at the Tour d’Elven.
Robesart, Louis de One of the guardians of Henry VI during his early childhood.
Robin of Redesdale A mysterious figure who led a series of uprisings in the North of England in the spring of 1469. It seems likely that even if the first Robin of Redesdale were genuine, later rioting under his name was stirred up by the Earl of Warwick and his associates as a way to suggest that they had legitimate grievances against Edward IV’s government.
Roos, de, Thomas, 9th Baron de Roos One of the leaders of the Lancastrians at the Battle of Wakefield, he went into exile with Henry VI and Margaret of Anjou following the Battle of Towton. He returned to fight for Lancaster at both Hedgeley Moor and the Battle of Hexham on 15 May 1464. He was captured and executed.
Rotherham, Thomas, Archbishop of York, 24 August 1423 – 29 May 1500 Rotherham was appointed as Lord Chancellor under Edward IV, amongst other positions. On Edward IV’s death he handed the great seal over to Elizabeth Woodville, although it was later recovered from her. Rotherham was arrested at the same time as Lord Hastings was executed, and imprisoned in the Tower for some weeks. During the reign of Henry VII he lived largely in retirement.
Savage, Sir John A retainer of Sir William Stanley, declared by Richard III to be a traitor shortly before the Battle of Bosworth. Savage fought for Henry Tudor at the battle, to the left of the Earl of Oxford.
Scales, Thomas, 7th Baron Scales, 1397 – 25 July 1460 Scales fought in France under John of Lancaster, Duke of Bedford. Together with Matthew Gough he attempted to defend London against Jack Cade’s rebels.
Schwartz, Martin, d. 16 June 1487 Leader of a mercenary force hired by the Yorkists to support the pretender Lambert Simnel. He was killed at the Battle of Stoke.
Scrope, Margaret The granddaughter of Henry Scrope, 4th Baron Scrope of Bolton, she was the wife of Edmund de la Pole, 3rd Duke of Suffolk.
Shaa, Dr Ralph. d. 1484 On 22 June 1483 Doctor Shaa preached at St Paul’s Cross. He announced that the marriage between Edward IV and Elizabeth Woodville had been invalid as, he alleged, the King had previously been betrothed to Lady Eleanor Butler (née Talbot).
Simonds, William The tutor of Lambert Simnel.
Simnel, Lambert, circa 1477 – after 1525 Lambert Simnel, whose real name is uncertain, first burst onto the historical scene in 1487 when as a boy of about 10, he was crowned as King Edward VI in Christchurch, Dublin. It was alleged that he was Edward, Earl of Warwick, son of George, Duke of Clarence. As the real Earl of Warwick was firmly locked up in the Tower of London, this was clearly impossible. Nevertheless unreconciled Yorkists, led by John de la Pole, Earl of Lincoln, Francis, Lord Lovell and Margaret of York, Dowager Duchess of Burgundy, staged the impersonation. It is unclear what was intended to happen to Simnel, had Henry VII’s forces been defeated. It is difficult to imagine that the Yorkist Lords intended he should actually be King. The Yorkists raised an army and invaded England in the North West. They marched to Stoke in Staffordshire and were roundly defeated under an army led by Henry VII in person. Simnel himself was treated kindly. After a brief sojourn in the Tower, he was given a job in the royal kitchens and eventually promoted to falconer.
Simnel, Thomas An Oxfordshire carpenter, possibly the father of Lambert Simnel.
Shakespeare, William c 26 April 1564 – 23 April 1616 Shakespeare’s cycle of plays about the Wars of the Roses have influenced our interpretation ever since. The title of Jones work, ‘The Hollow Crown’ is derived from Act III Sc. ii of ‘The Life and Death of Richard II’, first performed in 1595.
Shore, Elizabeth (Jane), c 1445 – 1527 Elizabeth was the daughter of one London merchant and the wife of another. She became the mistress of Edward IV in around 1476 and was still his lover at the time of his death. Edward seems to have been genuinely attached to her. She was also the mistress of Edward’s friend, William, Lord Hastings and the King’s stepson, Thomas, Marquess of Dorset. Elizabeth was forced to do public penance by Richard III, but then married his Solicitor General, Thomas Lynom.
Somerset, John Henry VI’s doctor during his childhood.
Stacey, Master John, d. 19 May 1477 A Fellow of Merton College, Oxford, Stacey was accused, together with Thomas Blake and Thomas Burdet, of predicting the King’s death using sorcery. He was hanged on 19 May 1477. George, Duke of Clarence, proclaimed the men’s innocence in front of the Privy Council.
Stafford, Sir Henry, c. 1425 – October 1471 Second son of Humphrey Stafford, 1st Duke of Buckingham, Stafford was married to the widowed Lady Margaret Beaufort, Countess of Richmond in 1458. He fought for Lancaster at Towton, but was subsequently reconciled to Edward IV. In 1471, Stafford was forced to choose between his old Lancastrian loyalty and Edward IV. He chose Edward IV and fought at the Battle of Barnet for York. He was severely wounded and died in October of that year.
Stafford, Henry, 2nd Duke of Buckingham, 4 September 1454 – 2 November 1483 Grandson of the 1st Duke of Buckingham, when his father was killed for Lancaster at the Battle of Towton, Buckingham was recognised as Duke and given in wardship to loyal Yorkists, including eventually, Queen Elizabeth Woodville. He was married to her sister Katharine, which he apparently perceived to be an insult to his Royal blood. On the death of Edward IV, he supported Richard III, for which he received recognition in the form of the restoration of the de Bohun estates of his ancestor, Eleanor de Bohun, Duchess of Gloucester. Not long after Richard’s coronation however, Buckingham began to plot rebellion. It is unclear whether he was aiming to replace Richard with Henry Tudor or, more likely, with himself. His efforts were a failure, and, betrayed by one of his own men, he was captured by Richard III and executed.
Stafford, Humphrey, 1st Duke of Buckingham, 15 August 1402 – 10 July 1460 Buckingham was the grandson of Edward III’s youngest son, Thomas, Duke of Gloucester. In around 1424, he married Anne Neville, daughter of the 1st Earl of Westmorland and Joan Beaufort. He was created Duke of Buckingham in 1444 with precedence over all non-royal dukes. In 1450 he, along with others, was sent to quash Jack Cade’s rebellion in Kent, but before they arrived, the rebels had marched on London. Buckingham remained loyal to Henry VI. He negotiated for the royalist party at the first Battle of St Albans but to no avail. He commanded Lancastrian forces at the Battle of Nottingham. Not actually killed in the battle, he was executed by the victorious Yorkists immediately thereafter.
Stafford, Humphrey, 1st Earl of Devon c. 1439 – 17 August 1469 Stafford was a distant relative of the Dukes of Buckingham. He fought for York at the Battles of Mortimer’s Cross and Towton. A supporter of Edward IV, he was granted the title of Earl of Devon, to replace the Courtenay earls, who were Lancastrian. Whilst supporting Edward IV against Warwick’s rebellion in 1469, he was murdered by a mob.
Stafford, Sir Humphrey d. 1450 Sir Humphrey was killed attempting to put down Jack Cade’s rebellion in 1450.
Stafford, Sir William d. 1450 Sir William was killed with his kinsman, Sir Humphrey, near Tonbridge in Kent, attempting to put down Jack Cade’s rebellion
Stanhope, Maud, d. after 1463 Maud’s second marriage in 1453 to Sir Thomas Neville, son of Richard, Earl of Salisbury, was the occasion of a private battle between the Percys and the Nevilles.
Stanley, Thomas, Lord Stanley, Earl of Derby, c. 1435 – 29 July 1504 Thomas Stanley achieved the amazing feat of never fighting at any of the battles of the Wars of the Roses. At the encounter at Blore Heath, he held his army back, which probably contributed to the Yorkist victory. He brought men in support of Warwick at the beginning of the Lancastrian resurgence in 1469 but they were not deployed, as Edward IV did not give battle. In 1472, he married the wealthy widow Lady Margaret Beaufort, Countess of Richmond. Stanley became a faithful supporter of Edward IV, being appointed Lord Steward. He supported his wife in her efforts to have her son, Henry Tudor, brought home from exile and reconciled to Edward IV. Before this could happen Edward died and Stanley was faced with the question of whether to support Richard III. Initially, he did so. His wife however, did not. When Lady Margaret was attainted for her part in the rebellion of the Duke of Buckingham, her lands were granted to her husband, who was supposed to keep her under house arrest. When Henry Tudor landed in Wales in August 1485 it is unclear whether Stanley had committed to supporting him or not. Stanley’s eldest son, George, Lord Strange, was being held hostage by Richard III. Stanley brought a large army towards Bosworth and had at least one secret meeting with his stepson before the battle. Nevertheless once hostilities commenced he did nothing. Following the battle it is alleged he crowned his stepson on the field. Henry granted his stepfather the title of Earl of Derby.
Stanley, Sir William, c. 1435 – 10 February 1495 Like his older brother, Thomas, Lord Stanley, Sir William avoided all of the battles of the Wars of the Roses until the Battle of Bosworth. He was present with his brother on the outskirts of the encounter at Blore Heath, and sent some men to relieve the Yorkist Earl of Salisbury, but did not commit himself further. Richard III suspected his loyalty and declared him a traitor prior to the Battle of Bosworth. At the battle William watched from the sidelines as events unfolded, and only after Richard III had made his last headlong advance towards Henry Tudor, did Stanley bring in his troops in support of his brother’s stepson. Stanley was rewarded with the post of Lord Chamberlain, but became suspected of involvement in the Perkin Warbeck plot. He was tried and executed on 16 February 1495.
Stillington, Robert Bishop of Bath and Wells, 1420 – 1491 It has been alleged that it was Bishop Stillington who told Richard III about a pre-contract of marriage between Lady Eleanor Butler (née Talbot) and Edward IV, impugning the legality of Edward’s marriage to Elizabeth Woodville. Stillington became involved in the Lambert Simnel rebellion, and died in prison.
Stanley, George, Lord Strange, 1460 – 1503 In 1482, Stanley was married to Joan, 9th Baroness Strange, a niece of Elizabeth Woodville, and granted a number of offices by Edward IV. At the time of the Battle of Bosworth he was held hostage by Richard III, for the good behaviour of his father, Thomas, Lord Stanley. Infuriated that the Stanleys had not joined him, Richard gave orders for Strange to be executed. The orders were not carried out. He became a Privy Councillor to Henry VII.
Sutton, John, Baron Dudley 25 December 1400 – 30 September 1487 Lord Dudley was a standard-bearer at the funeral of Henry V. He was accused by the rebels of Jack Cade of treachery, along with other leading councillors of the King. He was taken prisoner together with the King at the first Battle of St Albans. Obviously unlucky, he was taken prisoner a second time by the Yorkists at the Battle of Blore Heath. By the time of Towton, however he had changed his allegiance, and fought for York.
Swynford, Katherine, Duchess of Lancaster, 25 November 1349 – 10 May 1403 Katherine Swynford (née de Roet) was for many years the mistress of John of Gaunt, Duke of Lancaster, by whom she had four children, who were legitimised by Act of Parliament, following their parents’ marriage. Their half-brother, Henry IV, added a clause barring them from succession to the Crown, however the validity of this is disputed. On the death of Lancaster’s second Duchess, Constanza of Castile, he married Katherine. Through her son, John Beaufort, 1st Earl of Somerset, she is the ancestor of Henry VII and all of the Kings of Scotland from James II onward. Through her daughter, Joan Beaufort, Countess of Westmorland, Katherine is the ancestor of Edward IV and Richard III.
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