Chapter 7 : Neville - Poynings
Neville, Anne, Duchess of Buckingham, 1414 – 20 September 1480 Anne Neville was the sister of Richard Neville, Earl of Salisbury, and Cecily Neville, Duchess of York. Anne was married in around 1424 to Humphrey Stafford, 1st Duke of Buckingham, by whom she had five children, including Sir Henry Stafford who married the widowed Lady Margaret Beaufort, Countess of Richmond in 1455. Buckingham was a Lancastrian and their eldest son, another Humphrey, was killed fighting for Lancaster at the first Battle of St Albans. In 1459, after the defeat of the Yorkists at Ludford Bridge, Anne’s sister, Cecily, and her younger children were put into her care. Buckingham was killed at the Battle of Northampton. Anne’s second son, Sir Henry Stafford, was reconciled to Edward IV after fighting for Lancaster at the Battle of Towton, but died of wounds sustained at Barnet. Anne’s grandson, Henry, 2nd Duke of Buckingham, although a supporter of Edward IV, rebelled against Richard III. Anne married a second time to Walter Blount, Lord Mountjoy. She outlived all but one of her children.
Neville, Anne, Queen of England, 11 June 1456 – 9 March 1485 Anne was the younger of the two daughters of Richard Neville, Earl of Warwick. In 1469, aged 13, she was taken by her parents to France, following Warwick’s decision to undo the work of his whole life and restore Henry VI to the throne. It was agreed that Anne would marry Edward of Lancaster, Prince of Wales. She remained in France with her mother, her new husband and her mother-in-law, Margaret of Anjou, whilst Warwick headed an invasion. In early 1471 the little Lancastrian Royal family returned to England, to the dreadful news that Warwick had been killed at the Battle of Barnet. The group, together with their army, headed for Tewkesbury, to meet Lancastrian reinforcements. On 4 April 1471 at the Battle of Tewkesbury, Anne’s husband was killed, either during the battle or immediately thereafter. With the Lancastrian cause apparently dead, Anne and the other women were taken to London. Anne was put into the care of her sister, Isabel, Duchess of Clarence. For reasons that are not known, Anne left Clarence’s house and disguised herself as a kitchen maid. This may have been because she wished to marry Richard, Duke of Gloucester and Clarence forced her into hiding to prevent it, or because she did not wish to marry the Duke and was hoping to hide from him. Regardless, in 1472 she married Richard, by whom she had one son, Edward of Middleham. For the next nine years Anne lived largely in the North of England. When Richard took the throne in 1483 she was crowned beside him at Westminster Abbe y. She lost her son the following April, and she herself died in March 1485, possibly of tuberculosis.
Neville, Cecily, Duchess of York, 3 May 1415 – 31 May 1495Cecily was the youngest child of Ralph Neville, 1st Earl of Westmorland and Joan Beaufort, daughter of John of Gaunt, Duke of Lancaster. She was married at the age of 14 to her father’s ward, Richard, Duke of York. During the 1430s and 1440s Cecily accompanied her husband and his various missions in France and Ireland, during which period she bore some 11 children. She was on better terms with Margaret of Anjou than was her husband but there was never any question as to her loyalties. Following the Battle of Ludford Bridge after which her husband and oldest two sons fled abroad, Cecily and her younger children were confined in the care of her sister, Anne, Duchess of Buckingham. She was briefly reunited with York following the Battle of Northampton but widowed in December 1460, following the Battle of Wakefield. On the accession of her son as Edward IV, Cecily, known as My Lady the King’s Mother, was a prominent figure at court. It is alleged that she disliked her daughter-in-law Elizabeth Woodville. When Henry VII became King, and her granddaughter Queen, Cecily lived largely in retirement, devoting herself to religious causes.
Neville, George, Bishop of Exeter, Lord Chancellor, 1432 – 8 June 1476 Son of Richard Neville, Earl of Salisbury, Neville was a firm supporter of York. When his cousin, Edward of York, claimed the throne in 1460 Neville gave a speech to the citizens of London outlining Edward’s claim and rallying their support. In Edward’s government he was given the role of Lord Chancellor, and later Archbishop of York. Neville’s primary loyalty was to his brother, Richard Neville, Earl of Warwick, and when Warwick rebelled against Edward IV, Neville supported him. He was pardoned for this but at a later time was accused of treason and held prisoner for two years at Hammes Castle near Calais.
Neville, Sir Henry, d. 26 July 1469 Neville, a cousin of Richard, Earl of Warwick and of Edward IV, supported Warwick in his rebellion against the King. He died at the Battle of Edgecote.
Neville, Isabel, Duchess of Clarence, 5 September 1451 – 12 December 1476 The eldest daughter of Richard, Earl of Warwick, she was married to George, Duke of Clarence, brother of Edward IV, and at that time the King’s heir, in defiance of the King’s express orders. Although the earldom of Warwick was actually her mother’s, the King permitted Clarence and his brother Gloucester, who was married to Isabel’s sister, Anne, to divide the lands of the earldom between them as though the Countess were ‘naturally dead’. Isabel bore two children, Margaret, and Edward, Earl of Warwick, before dying young in childbed. The execution of Isabel’s daughter is seen by Jones as the final close of the Wars of the Roses.
Neville, Katherine, Duchess of Norfolk, circa 1401 – after 1483 The second of the numerous children of Ralph Neville, first Earl of Westmorland and his wife Joan Beaufort, Katherine was the sister of Cecily, Duchess of York, Anne, Duchess of Buckingham, Richard, Earl of Salisbury, and Eleanor, Duchess of Northumberland. Katherine had four husbands: John, 2nd Duke of Norfolk by whom she had John, 3rd Duke of Norfolk, a Yorkist; Thomas Strangeways; John, Viscount Beaumont, who died for Lancaster at the Battle of Northampton and finally, in a grotesque match that shocked the court, John Woodville, brother of Queen Elizabeth Woodville and some 45 years her junior, whom she outlived.
Neville, John, Marquess of Montague c. 1431 – 14 April 1471 Son of the Earl of Salisbury, Neville fought at Blore Heath for York but was captured on his return and imprisoned in Chester Castle. In 1461 he was present together with Warwick at the second Battle of St Albans, a Yorkist victory. When his cousin, Edward IV, became King, Neville shared in the spoils, first receiving the title of Montague and then the forfeited Percy title of Earl of Northumberland. He repaid his cousin with his loyalty when Warwick first rebelled but Neville was disappointed when Northumberland was returned to Percy. He received new lands and a marquessate but when Warwick reinstated Henry VI, Neville joined his brother, being killed with him at the Battle of Barnet.
Neville, Richard, Earl of Salisbury, 1430 - December 1460 The oldest son of Ralph Neville, 1stEarl of Westmorland by his second wife, Joan Beaufort, daughter of John of Gaunt, Duke of Lancaster, Salisbury was a devoted friend and follower of his brother-in-law, Richard, Duke of York. He held his title in right of his wife, Alice Montacute, 5th Countess of Salisbury. During York’s Protectorate, Salisbury was appointed as Lord Chancellor. He was swiftly displaced from office when York’s Protectorate ended with Henry VI’s return to such level of mental capacity as he had exhibited before his illness. Salisbury was present at the first Battle of St Albans, where they captured Henry VI. Not yet thinking of claiming the Crown, York, supported by Salisbury and the others, renewed their allegiance to Henry. Salisbury took part, arm-in-arm, with Somerset, in the Loveday procession supposed to indicate the restoration of amity between Henry and York. In September 1459 Salisbury took his troops to meet York at Ludlow. En route, Salisbury and his men achieved a victory at Blore Heath. At Ludlow however, they did not have sufficient men who were prepared to fight directly against the King. Salisbury together with Warwick and the young Edward, Earl of March escaped to Calais. He returned to England with the rest of the Yorkist Lords in 1460, and was killed at the Battle of Wakefield along with his brother-in-law York and his nephew Rutland.
Neville, Richard, Earl of Warwick 22 November 1428 – 14 April 1471 Known to history as Warwick the Kingmaker, Warwick was a leading participant in the Wars of the Roses, first for York, and when he discovered that he was unable to rule his cousin, Edward IV, as the defender of Lancaster. Warwick was the son of Richard Neville, Earl of Salisbury. He married Anne Beauchamp, 16th Countess of Warwick, and, as was the custom, held her lands and title. Warwick, like his father, Salisbury, was an early supporter of York. It was Warwick’s men who began hostilities at the first Battle of St Albans and overpowered royalist forces. Following the battle in an effort to show their loyalty to Henry VI, York, Salisbury and Warwick all accompanied him to a ceremony at St Paul’s at which Warwick bore the King’s sword. During York’s second Protectorate, Warwick was appointed as Captain of Calais, a post which he retained even after York was dismissed. At the Loveday procession Warwick made a show of reconciliation with the Duke of Exeter, husband of his cousin, Anne of York. With his control of Calais, Warwick became a key player. He rendezvoused with York at Ludlow but, when it became apparent that the Yorkists could not fight the royal army he escaped, together with his cousin, Edward, Earl of March, to Calais. The following year, he led an invasion force which overwhelmed the Lancastrians at the Battle of Northampton, where Henry VI was captured. This was followed by the Lancastrian victory at the second Battle of St Albans. Warwick, escaping, took the remnants of his army to meet Edward of York, who now had himself proclaimed King. For the first few years of Edward’s reign Warwick was, or considered himself to be, the second most important man in the kingdom.
Eventually, he quarrelled with Edward when it became apparent that Edward was his own man. In particular Warwick was humiliated when his negotiations with France for a marriage between Edward and a French princess came to nothing because Edward had secretly married Elizabeth Woodville. Warwick bore a grudge and four years later in 1469, attempted to take control of government by holding Edward captive. This scheme did not work out and Warwick decided on a last-ditch attempt to maintain power by reconciling himself with his old enemy, Margaret of Anjou, and reinstating Henry VI as King. Edward IV escaped to exile in Burgundy for about a year but then returned and annihilated Warwick’s army at the Battle of Barnet. Warwick was killed.
Neville, Sir Thomas, d. 30 December 1460 The marriage of Sir Thomas Neville, son of Richard, Earl of Salisbury to Maud Stanhope, gave rise to a battle between the Nevilles and the Percys, fuelling further rounds of baronial dispute that underlay the Wars of the Roses. Neville was killed alongside his father at the battle of Wakefield.
Neville, Thomas, Bastard of Fauconberg, 1429 – 20 to September 1471 The illegitimate son of William, Lord Fauconberg, Neville adhered to his cousin Warwick, and even after the Lancastrian defeat at Tewkesbury he attempted to hold London for the Lancastrians. He was defeated but escaped. Following his later capture, he was executed.
Neville, William, Baron Fauconberg, circa 1405 – 9 January 1463 The son of Ralph Neville 1st Earl of Westmorland by second wife Joan Beaufort, he married Joan, 6th Baroness Fauconberg. He was with the Lancastrian army at the first Battle of St Albans but moved increasingly into the Yorkist camp. He was one of the Yorkist commanders at the Battles of Northampton, second St Albans, and Towton. Edward IV ennobled him as 1st Earl of Kent.
Norris, Thomas, Captain of Beaumaris In 1450 Norris received orders from Henry VI that York and his men would be delayed on their return from Ireland.
Ogle, Sir Robert, 1406 – 1469 A leader of a Yorkist contingent at the first Battle of St Albans.
Oldhall, Sir William, c.1390 – 1460 A veteran of the French wars, Oldhall became Chamberlain to the Duke of York in around 1440. He became Speaker of the House of Commons in 1450. As a proxy in Somerset and York’s private war, Oldhall was accused by Walter de Burgh of having taken part in a riot resulting in the looting of Somerset’s house. Oldhall fled into sanctuary at St Martin’s le Grand, but was dragged out by a party of nobles, including Salisbury and the Earl of Wiltshire. Such a breach of sanctuary could not be tolerated and Oldhall was returned to the church, where he remained trapped for some three years.
Paston, Clement A member of the Paston family of Norfolk, his letters give information about the state of London in the winter 1460 – 61.
Paston, John A member of the Paston family of Norfolk, he was advised by his brother Clement, studying in London, to be prepared for battle at any moment as the political situation deteriorated in 1460 – 61.
Percy, Henry, 2nd Earl of Northumberland, three February 1393 – 22 May 1455 The feud between the Percy and the Neville families was one of the underlying causes of the Wars of the Roses. Northumberland, although married to Eleanor Neville and thus, brother-in-law to York, who was married to Eleanor’s sister, Cecily, continued in the traditional Percy loyalty to Lancaster. He was killed at the first Battle of St Albans.
Percy, Henry, 3rd Earl of Northumberland, 25 July 1421 – 29 March 1461 Northumberland, whose father had been killed supporting Henry VI at the first Battle of St Albans, nursed a grudge against the Yorkists. He took part in the Loveday parade which was intended to reconcile those who had lost fathers and brothers at the battle to each other. Unfortunately, it did not. The 3rd Earl was killed fighting for Lancaster at Towton.
Percy, Henry 4th Earl of Northumberland, 1449 – 28 April 1489 12 years old when his father was killed at Towton, fighting for Lancaster, Henry was eventually reconciled to Edward IV and re-established in the earldom of Northumberland. During Edward’s reign he worked with Richard, Duke of Gloucester, to hold the North. Gloucester was perceived by many to be the heir of the Neville influence in the North which had always been inimical to the Percys. Whether it was this or some other unknown factor, cannot be known but, after initially accepting Richard III as King, Northumberland brought his troops to Bosworth but declined to fight. After brief imprisonment at the beginning of Henry VII’s reign, he was restored to all of his honours but was lynched in 1489 when attempting to collect taxes.
Percy, Sir Ralph, d 1464 A son of Henry Percy, 2nd Earl of Northumberland, Percy was a Lancastrian, superficially reconciled to Edward IV but determined on revenge for the death of his father and brother. He died fighting for Lancaster at the Battle of Hedgeley Moor.
Percy, Thomas, Lord Egremont, 29 November 1422 – 10 July 1460 Egremont led an ambush at the marriage of Sir Thomas Neville and Maud Stanhope as part of the ongoing feud between the Nevilles and Percys. He fought for Lancaster at the Battle of Northampton and was amongst those Lords who were deliberately killed following the battle.
Philip the Bold, Duke of Burgundy, 17 January 1342 – 27 April 1404 Uncle of the mentally incapacitated Charles VI of France, Burgundy fought a bloody war with his nephew, Louis of Orleans, for control of the King. He allied with the English, and this fatally weakened France in the face of English aggression.
Philip the Good, Duke of Burgundy, 31 July 1396 – 15 June 1467 In 1435 Philip, following two generations of civil strife, came to terms with Charles VII of France at the Treaty of Arras. In return for the King finding and punishing the assassins of Philip’s father, John the Fearless, Philip would abandon the Burgundian alliance with England. Philip had an astonishing three wives and 24 mistresses, producing some 21 children in all.
Philip the Fair, Duke of Burgundy, 22 July 1478 – 25 September 1506 Philip was the son of Mary, Duchess of Burgundy and the Emperor Maximilian. He inherited the duchy on his mother’s death when he was only four years old. At the age of 18 he was married to Joanna, daughter of Ferdinand of Aragon and Isabella of Castile. In 1501 Henry VII travelled to Calais where he met Duke Philip and agreed a treaty. In 1506 the rulers met again when Philip and Joanna were travelling to claim her inheritance, the throne of Castile, and were shipwrecked in England. They remained as honoured guests until Maximilian was persuaded to hand over Edmund de la Pole to Henry VII. Philip did not long enjoy his wife’s crown, dying suddenly at the age of 28.
Philip III, King of France, 30 April 1245 – 5 October 1285 Son of Louis IX and Margaret of Provence, Philip’s daughter by his second marriage, Margaret of France, was the second wife of Edward I, and ancestress of both Anne Boleyn and Catherine Howard. By his first marriage Philip III was grand-father of Isabella of France, through whom Edward III claimed the French throne.
Philip IV, King of France, 1268 – 29 November 1314 Father through his wife Joanna, Queen of Navarre, of Isabella of France, Queen of England, through whom the English Kings claimed the Crown of France.
Philip V, King of France, 1291 – 3 January 1322 He supported his sister, Isabella of France, and his nephew, Prince Edward, with men and troops to overthrow Isabella’s husband, Edward II of England.
Plantagenet, Arthur, Viscount Lisle d. 1542 Lisle was an illegitimate son of Edward IV and thus half-uncle to Henry VIII. In 1501, he joined the household of his half-sister, Queen Elizabeth of York, and then transferred to that of Henry VII. He received many offices under Henry VIII, including Vice-Admiral of the Fleet, and, in 1533 was appointed Governor of Calais. The massive correspondence that remains from Lisle and his household give many of the details of Henry’s court in the 1530s. In 1540, it was alleged that a plot was afoot to surrender Calais to the French. Lisle was arrested and imprisoned. After two years, as no evidence had been found against him, it was decided to release him, but, unfortunately, on hearing the good news he died of a heart attack.
Plantagenet, Lady Margaret, Countess of Salisbury 14 April 1473 – 27 May 1541Margaret was the niece of Edward IV and thus first cousin to Elizabeth of York. A marriage was arranged for her to Sir Richard Pole, a Tudor supporter and half-nephew of Margaret Beaufort, and she remained within Court circles during Henry VII’s reign. Margaret became a close friend of Katherine of Aragon, and was godmother and Lady Governess to Henry VIII and Katharine’s daughter, Mary. Her title of Countess of Salisbury was heritable through the female line, and it was restored, together with some of the lands, in 1512. Margaret remained at the centre of Court life until the annulment suit began, although she had a rather chequered relationship with Henry. Margaret sided with her friend, Katharine, as far possible, but did not openly disobey Henry and wrote firmly to her rebellious son, Reginald Pole, in Rome, chastising him for criticising the King. Nevertheless, Margaret and her other sons were suspected of treason during the Exeter Conspiracy. She was arrested in 1538 and sent to the Tower. Attainted of treason, and with her lands and titles again confiscated, she remained there, protesting ignorance of the cause of her imprisonment, until 1541 when she was executed in a botched beheading.
Plumpton, Sir William, 1404 – 15 October 1480 A retainer of the Percys’, Plumpton was summoned to join the Lancastrian army in March 1461. He fought and survived the Battle of Towton; his son was not so fortunate. Eventually reconciled to Edward of York, Plumpton regained his offices.
Pole, Edmund de la, 3rd Duke of Suffolk, c. 1472 – 30 April 1514 Only 13 at the time of Bosworth, Edmund was a frequent visitor to the court of his cousin, Queen Elizabeth of York, and Henry VII. He supported Henry throughout the Perkin Warbeck affair and against the Cornish rebels. However financially embarrassed, and perhaps mindful that many people believed he was the rightful king, he left England without permission in 1499. He was sent home and obliged to pay a large fine but he had now attracted the King’s suspicions. In November 1501 he and his brother Richard again left England without permission and travelled to the court of the Holy Roman Emperor, Maximilian. Maximilian delighted at this new opportunity to keep other European rulers on their toes, paraded Suffolk about as King of England. Unfortunately for Suffolk, in 1506, Maximilian’s son, Philip the Fair of Burgundy and his wife Joanna of Castile, were shipwrecked in England. It was soon apparent that Philip would continue to enjoy Henry’s hospitality for as long as Suffolk enjoyed Maximilian’s. Suffolk was returned to England on the promise that his life would be spared. Henry VII kept his word to the letter and merely imprisoned Suffolk in the Tower of London. Henry VIII had no such fine feelings, and Suffolk was executed when Henry was preparing to go to war in France in 1513.
Pole, Humphrey de la, 1474 – 1513 A younger son of John, 2nd Duke of Suffolk, fortunately for Humphrey he was in holy orders and therefore exempt from the suspicions of treason which fell on his brothers.
Pole, John de la Brother of William de la Pole, 1st Duke of Suffolk.
Pole, John de la, 2nd Duke of Suffolk, 27 September 1442 – c. 1492 In his early youth John was married to Lady Margaret Beaufort, later Countess of Richmond, but the marriage was dissolved before it was completed. When he was eight, his father was killed, and he was transferred to the wardship of Richard, Duke of York. He married York’s daughter, Elizabeth, and became a warm adherent of his father-in-law. He was demoted to the rank of Earl in the Coventry Parliament following the Yorkist loss at Ludford Bridge. He fought for York at the second Battle of St Albans and was an important member of the Royal family once Edward IV became King, having his dukedom restored. He and Elizabeth had eleven children but no grandchildren. The eldest son John, Earl of Lincoln was probably named by Richard III as his heir after the death of Edward of Middleham, Prince of Wales. Following the Battle of Bosworth, Suffolk took no part in the Yorkist rebellion of 1487 in which his son was killed.
Pole, John de la, Earl of Lincoln, c 1462 – 16 June 1487 Son of Elizabeth of York and John, 2nd Duke of Suffolk, Lincoln supported his uncle, Richard III, and was granted a place on the Council of the North. It is likely that Richard considered Lincoln as his heir. Although reconciled to Henry VII following the Battle of Bosworth, two years later Lincoln played a leading part in the Lambert Simnel affair, being present at the coronation of the boy. Lincoln was killed at the Battle of Stoke.
Pole, Katherine de la, Abbess of Barking Sister of William de la Pole, Duke of Suffolk. In 1437, Edmund and Jasper Tudor, the children of Queen Catherine de Valois by her second marriage, were entrusted to her care.
Pole, Richard de la, 1480 – 24 February 1524 De la Pole secretly left England in 1501 together with his brother Edmund. He spent the rest of his life on the Continent, being passed around the courts of Europe amongst those rulers who wished to provoke the Kings of England. He was killed at the Battle of Pavia, fighting in the French army.
Pole, William de la, 4th Earl and 1st Duke of Suffolk, c. 1396 – 1450 In 1428, Suffolk took over command of the English forces at Orleans, following the death of the Earl of Salisbury. He was utterly routed by the appearance of Joan of Arc. On his return to England he became a member of the King’s Council and gradually rose in influence and importance. He was initially effective in government because he had a good relationship both with Cardinal Beaufort, and Humphrey, Duke of Gloucester. He negotiated the truce with France that resulted in the marriage of Henry VI to Margaret of Anjou. This truce was considered dishonourable by the War Party as it involved not just marriage to a girl with an insignificant dowry but also the ceding of the county of Maine. Over the following years Suffolk became increasingly unpopular with both Lords and Commons. In the Parliament of January 1450 he was impeached. Permitted to plead his case before the King, he pointed out his many years of service to the Crown. Henry VI found him guilty, not of the greater counts of treason that had been brought, but of lesser crimes, and sentenced him to five years of banishment. As Suffolk left England, his ship was captured by a craft called the Nicholas of the Tower, Suffolk was dragged on-board and executed with a rusty sword.
Pole, William de la, 1478 – c. 1539 Son of John, 2nd Duke of Suffolk, William was imprisoned in the Tower when his brothers secretly left England in 1501. He remained there for the rest of his life.
Pole, Sir Geoffrey c. 1502 – 1558 Pole was the younger son of Margaret Plantagenet, Countess of Salisbury and younger brother of Cardinal Reginald Pole. His evidence about correspondence between his mother and brother, Lord Montague, with Cardinal Pole was the foundation for the charges of treason laid against Montague, the Countess, and their cousin, Henry Courtenay, Marquess of Exeter. Sir Geoffrey pleaded guilty to charges of treason in 1538, and was pardoned in 1539. After his mother’s execution, he left England for Rome, returning at the accession of Mary I.
Pole, Henry, 1st Baron Montague, c. 1492 – 9 January 1536 The oldest son and heir of Lady Margaret Plantagenet, Countess of Salisbury, he was on good terms with his cousin Henry VIII until his father-in-law, Edward Stafford, 3rd Duke of Buckingham was executed for treason. Montague spent a short period in the Tower of London but was then released and apparently restored to favour. He supported Henry’s annulment of his first marriage, but by the late 1530s the King was becoming increasingly suspicious of Montague and their mutual cousin, the Marquess of Exeter. Montague was accused of treason and executed.
Pole, Reginald, Cardinal, 1500 - 1558 Pole was the son of Margaret Plantagenet, Countess of Salisbury, and was Henry VIII’s second cousin. Pole’s education was initially paid for by Henry, and he had a very promising career until the matter of the annulment of the King’s marriage arose. Pole was a staunch defender of the power of the Pope and of the Catholic Church, although his personal theology reflected the humanist trend of the early sixteenth century. His support of the Pope and his nearness to the throne rendered Pole one of Henry’s deadliest enemies, especially when he called upon European princes to depose the King. In 1538 Pole’s brother, mother and cousin were arrested and imprisoned on charges of treason and two of them later executed. In 1556 Pole was ordained priest and became the last Catholic Archbishop of Canterbury, under Mary I.
Poynings, Sir Robert. c. 1419 – 17 February 1461 Poynings supported the rebellion of Jack Cade. He died fighting for York at the second Battle of St Albans.
Poynings, Sir Edward, 1459 – 22 October 1521 Poynings, after initial involvement in Buckingham’s rebellion in 1483, escaped to Brittany where he joined Henry Tudor. Following the coronation of Henry VII he joined the King’s Privy Council and became Lord Deputy of Ireland. Part of his duties were to contain Irish support for Perkin Warbeck.
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