Chapter 6 : Jacqueline - Mowbray
Jacqueline of Hainault, Duchess of Gloucester, 1401 – 8 October 1436 Jacqueline was Countess of Hainault, and other territories, in her own right, but was challenged by her male relatives. Her husband John, Duke of Brabant, eventually sold her birthright. She left John, and requested an annulment of her marriage. Forced into exile in England she was well-received by Henry V and was godmother to Henry VI. An annulment was granted in England, and she married Henry V’s brother, Humphrey, Duke of Gloucester. The couple remained childless. Gloucester supported his wife’s claims, which created difficulties as her opponents were the Burgundian faction allied to England in France. Gloucester abandoned Jacqueline, perhaps from a desire to avoid the political and military situation as well as because he wanted to marry the beautiful Eleanor Cobham. Pope Martin V declared her marriage to Gloucester null and void and Jacqueline was obliged to retire to the small estate she was granted after ‘voluntarily’ resigning her lands to the Duke of Burgundy.
Jacquetta of Luxembourg, Duchess of Bedford, c 1415 – 30 May 1472 Jacquetta was married at the age of 17 to John of Lancaster, Duke of Bedford, as part of the Burgundian alliance with England against France. She was widowed within a couple of years, and secretly married Sir Richard Woodville. The marriage was one of great social disparity and created a furore. Nevertheless the Woodvilles went on to have 14 children. Jacquetta retained the rank of her first husband and was an important figure at the Lancastrian court, and lady-in-waiting to Margaret of Anjou. In 1465, however, she seized the opportunity when Edward IV became enamoured of her daughter Elizabeth, the widow of Sir John Grey of Groby. Jacquetta was present when they married in secret and was godmother their first child, Elizabeth of York. In 1469, she was accused by the Earl of Warwick and the Duke of Clarence of having used sorcery to ensnare the King.
Jakeman, Agnes Chamber woman to Henry VI as a baby.
James I, King of Scots, 25 July 1394 – 21 February 1437 James had been captured at the age of 12 in English waters, and had been held prisoner ever since. He was treated as an honoured guest, but was not allowed to return home to Scotland until he had entered into a treaty with the English under which he married Lady Joan Beaufort, half cousin of Henry V. He was released on return to Scotland in 1424, not necessarily to the delight of his relatives. He was assassinated in 1437.
James IV of Scotland, 17 March 1473 – 9 September 1513 James IV was one of the European monarchs who supported Perkin Warbeck with money, men and even a wife. Eventually, however, he came to terms with Henry VII, whose daughter Margaret he married in 1503. James was killed at the Battle of Flodden on 9 September 1513, by the forces of his brother-in-law, Henry VIII.
Jeanne de Bourbon, Queen of France, 23 April 1464 – 4 February 1505 Jeanne was the daughter of Louis XI and sister of Charles VIII. As France did not recognise female inheritance of the Crown, she was married to Louis of Orleans, the next heir. On Charles’s death, Jeanne became Queen Consort of France but was swiftly divorced. She was granted the Duchy of Berry and lived in retirement.
Jean, Count of Dunois, the Bastard of Orleans, 23 November 1402 - 24 November 1468 Dunois was the commander of Joan of Arc’s forces, when the French raised the Siege of Orleans on 8 May 1429.
Joan of Arc, c 1412 - 30 May 1431 A 17-year-old girl from Lorraine, she persuaded the Dauphin Charles to give her troops to relieve the city of Orleans, which had been besieged by the English for over a year. The astonished Dauphin was persuaded by her sincerity, and she was as good as her word. Orleans was relieved and Charles was crowned King of France. A year later Joan was captured by the Burgundians, and sold to the English. She was tried for heresy and burnt in Rouen.
Joan of Navarre, Queen of England, 1370 – 1437 By her first marriage, Joan was Duchess of Brittany, and acted as Regent for her son, John V. In 1403 she married the widowed Henry IV of England. The couple had no children but she was on good terms with his sons. In 1419 she was accused of witchcraft and imprisoned for four years.
John the Fearless, Duke of Burgundy, 28 May 1371 – 10 September 1419. John and his nephew, Louis of Orleans, were locked in conflict over who should be Regent for John’s nephew, Charles VI of France. On 23 November 1407, Louis was murdered on John’s orders. France degenerated into civil war between the Burgundians and the supporters of Louis’ son, Charles, the Armagnacs. On 10 September 1419 John was in his turn, murdered.
John of Gaunt, Duke of Lancaster, 6 March 1340 – 3 February 1399 John was the third son of Edward III. He married three times, first to his cousin Blanche of Lancaster, which brought the Lancastrian estates back into the royal family. He and Blanche had three children who grew up, Henry IV, Philippa of Lancaster, Queen of Portugal, and Elizabeth of Lancaster, Duchess of Exeter. By his second wife, Constance of Castile, John had another daughter, Katherine of Lancaster, Queen of Castile. By his third wife, Katherine Swynford (née de Roet), he had four children, who were all born prior to their marriage. These four children were given the surname Beaufort. His senior male descendants were the Lancastrian kings. Through his oldest Beaufort son he was the ancestor of Henry VII and through his youngest daughter, Joan Beaufort, he was also the ancestor of Edward IV and Richard III.
John of Lancaster, Duke of Bedford, 20 June 1389 – 14 September 1435 John was the third son of Henry IV, but second only to his brother, Henry V, in military and political skill. On Henry V’s death Bedford was appointed to manage the English possessions in France. On 17 August 1424 he achieved a stunning victory at the Battle of Verneuil. Bedford was married to Anne of Burgundy, sister of the English ally, the Duke of Burgundy. He was a successful Governor of Normandy, but following his death in 1435 the English steadily lost control. Bedford, like his brother Gloucester, was a great patron of the arts. His illuminated Book of Hours, housed at the British Library, is one of the treasures of the early 15th century.
John of Pontefract An illegitimate son of Richard III, he was knighted by his father and appointed as Captain of Calais in 1485. The last certain knowledge of John was the grant to him of the pension of 20 marks per annum by Henry VII on 1 March 1486.
Joanna I, Queen of Castile, 6 November 1479 – 12 April 1555 Joanna, daughter of Ferdinand of Aragon and Isabella of Castile, was married to Philip the Fair, Duke of Burgundy. She and Philip were shipwrecked in England in 1506 on their way to Spain to claim Joanna’s kingdom of Castile. They were treated as honoured guests but no ships could be found to return them to Spain until Philip and his father, the Emperor Maximilian, had agreed to hand over Edmund de la Pole to Henry VII. Joanna spent most of the rest of her life under restraint, allegedly suffering from madness.
Katherine of Aragon, Queen of England, 16 December 1485 – 6 January 1536 Daughter of Ferdinand of Aragon and Isabella of Castile, Katherine came to England in 1501 to marry Arthur, Prince of Wales in fulfilment of the Treaty of Medina del Campo. On Arthur’s death, it was agreed she would marry his brother, Henry, and a dispensation for the marriage was granted by the Pope, allowing for either the consummation or non-consummation of the first marriage. In fact, the match did not take place until Henry succeeded to the throne in 1509. Katherine was exceptionally well educated and intelligent, a patron of learning and a woman who inspired great personal loyalty. She and Henry lived happily together for some sixteen years, although only one child, Mary, survived more than a few weeks. By 1525, with Katherine past child-bearing, Henry was looking elsewhere for an heir. Simultaneously, he became enamoured of Anne Boleyn. Henry requested the Pope to grant an annulment of his marriage to Katherine, on the basis that the dispensation was not valid, as the Pope could not dispense in the particular case. Katherine argued that as her first marriage had not been consummated, her second marriage was valid. Initially, Henry tried to persuade Katherine by gentle means, but she was adamant that she would not back down. Supported by her powerful nephew, Emperor Charles V, Katherine fought the annulment to the bitter end, refusing to accept the verdict given by Archbishop Cranmer in 1533 that the marriage was invalid, and that she was not Queen, but merely Princess Dowager of Wales. She was sent to increasingly isolated castles and parted from her daughter. She died in 1536, signing herself Katherine the Queen.
Katherine of York, Countess of Devon, 14 August 1479 – 15 November 1527 Katherine was the fifth daughter of Edward IV and Queen Elizabeth Woodville. On her father’s death she retreated to sanctuary at Westminster Abbey with her mother, sisters and brother, Richard of Shrewsbury, Duke of York. When Queen Elizabeth and her daughters were finally persuaded to emerge, the sisters were promised that they would be married honourably. When her older sister, Elizabeth of York, became Henry VII’s Queen, Katherine was a member of her household. When she was 20 she was married to William Courtenay, Earl of Devon. Although he came under suspicion of treason and was imprisoned, Katherine herself remained free. She had two children, Margaret and Henry. When her nephew, Henry VIII, inherited the throne she was one of the most important court ladies, and stood godmother to his daughter, Mary.
Kemp, Cardinal John, Archbishop of Canterbury, c. 1380 – 22 March 1454 Kemp was Chancellor to Henry VI and a loyal servant of the King and Margaret of Anjou.
Kerver, Thomas In 1444 Thomas Kerver, bailiff to the Abbot of Reading, was brought before the King’s Bench accused of treason. The sentence of hanging, drawing and quartering was begun but before it was completed Kerver was cut down and taken away. Apparently this was upon the orders of the King. Kerver spent some time in prison before being released.
Kynaston, Sir Roger of Hordley c. 1433 – 1495 Kynaston was one of the Duke of York’s retainers. At the Battle of Blore Heath on 23 April 1459, he was involved in the death of Lord Audley, the Lancastrian commander.
Kyriell, Sir Thomas, 1396 – 1461 Kyriell was appointed by the Yorkists to guard the captured Henry VI who had been brought to the battlefield of St Albans. This was a Lancastrian victory, and Kyriell and his fellow guard, Lord Bonville, were summarily executed on Queen Margaret’s orders.
Landais, Pierre, Treasurer of Brittany, 1430 – 1485 Landais was one of Francis II, Duke of Brittany’s, most important advisers. He worked with Francis to use Henry Tudor as a bargaining tool with both England and France. In 1484, during a period of illness on the part of Duke Francis, Richard III agreed with Landais that in return for 4000 soldiers to defend Brittany against the French, Henry Tudor would be handed over. Henry got wind of the plot, and escaped to France with only moments to spare. On his recovery Duke Francis was horrified that his hospitality had been so undermined and committed Henry’s other followers to join him at court of France. Landais had numerous enemies and was eventually tortured and executed.
Lionel of Antwerp, Duke of Clarence, 29 November 1338 – 17 October 1368 The second son of Edward III, Lionel’s great-grandson, Edmund Mortimer, Earl of March, was nominated as his successor by Richard II. Edmund’s claim passed to his nephew, Richard, Duke of York.
Louis de Valois, Duke of Orleans, 13 March 1372 – 23 November 1407 Louis attempted to become the Governor of France during the frequent periods of insanity of his brother, Charles VI. This led to murderous conflict with his uncle, John the Fearless, Duke of Burgundy. Louis was murdered in the streets of Paris on his uncle’s orders.
Louis IX, 25 April 1214 – 25 August 1270 Louis IX, later canonised, was one of France’s most successful mediaeval Kings. Men who are descended in unbroken male line from Louis were considered to be ‘Princes du Sang’, and eligible to inherit the throne.
Louis X, King of France, 4 October 1289 – 5 June 1316 Louis was the oldest son of Philip IV of France, and the brother of Isabella of France, Queen of England.
Louis XI, King of France, 3 July 1423 – 30 August 1483 Louis inherited the throne of France on 22 July 1461. He granted asylum to Margaret of Anjou, although he did not keep her in any great state. He gave her some military support in 1463 until in October of that year he entered a peace treaty with Edward IV that prohibited him from aiding the Lancastrians. It was with Louis XI that Warwick was negotiating for a French alliance to be cemented by the marriage of Edward IV to Louis’ sister-in-law, Bona of Savoy. The news that Edward was already married to Elizabeth Woodville, unsurprisingly, brought the negotiations to a crashing halt. Edward’s subsequent alliance with Burgundy, through the marriage of his sister, Margaret of York, to Charles, Duke of Burgundy, drove Louis again into supporting the Lancastrians. He funded a small invasion by Jasper Tudor, Earl of Pembroke in 1468 and it was Louis who organised a reconciliation between Warwick and Margaret of Anjou which led to the readeption of Henry VI. After the loss at the Battle of Tewkesbury and the deaths of Henry VI and Edward of Lancaster, Prince of Wales, Louis ransomed Margaret of Anjou in 1475. It was with Louis XI that Edward IV agreed the Treaty of Picquiny in 1475. Louis also negotiated a treaty with Burgundy in 1483, which was a blow for England.
Louis XII, King of France, 27 June 1462 – 1 January 1515 Louis inherited the throne from his distant cousin, and brother-in-law, Charles VIII, in May 1498. In retaliation for Henry VIII’s invasion of France in 1513, Louis recognised Richard de la Pole as the rightful King of England. In the treaty which ended Henry’s war in France, Louis was married to Mary, younger daughter of Henry VII, known subsequently as Mary, the French Queen.
Lovell, John, 8th Baron Lovell, 1433 – 1465 On his death, his son, Francis, being underage, was given by Edward IV into the wardship of Richard Neville, Earl of Warwick.
Lovell, Francis, 1st Viscount Lovell, 1444 – after 1488 Lovell was a ward of Richard Neville, Earl of Warwick and was brought up with Richard, Duke of Gloucester, with whom he enjoyed a long and enduring friendship. When Richard took the throne as Richard III, Lovell was one of his closest advisers – as remembered in the rhyme ‘the cat, the rat and Lovell the dog rule all England under a hog.’ Lovell was appointed to guard the south coast of England against possible invasion by Henry Tudor. Following the Battle of Bosworth he fled into sanctuary and then after a failed rebellion in Yorkshire, escaped to the court of Margaret of York, Dowager Duchess of Burgundy. Lovell was involved in the Lambert Simnel rebellion and fought at the Battle of Stoke in 1487. It is uncertain whether Lovell escaped from the battle or not, Jones lists him as amongst the fallen but other sources believe he escaped.
Lovell, John, 8th Baron Lovell, 1433 – 1465 On his death, his son, Francis, being underage, was given by Edward IV into the wardship of Richard Neville, Earl of Warwick.
Lovell, Sir Thomas, d. 1524 Lovell joined Henry Tudor in Brittany, after the death of Edward IV. Following the Battle of Bosworth he received a number of positions in the new King’s household. He was Speaker of the House of Commons in Henry VII’s first Parliament and on 10 December 1485 conveyed Parliament’s desire that Henry VII should marry ‘that illustrious Lady Elizabeth, daughter of King Edward IV’. Lovell remained one of Henry’s most important advisers and also served under Henry VIII until he retired from public affairs in around 1515.
Lydgate, John, c. 1370 – c. 1450 A Benedictine monk, Lydgate was a poet, patronised by many of the most educated men at Henry VI’s court, in particular Humphrey, Duke of Gloucester, the King’s uncle. He wrote and translated copious amounts of poetry, including various works supportive of Henry VI’s claim to the French throne.
Mancini, Dominic Mancini visited England sometime in the period 1482 to 1483. He wrote a contemporaneous report for his patron, the Archbishop of Vienne, in which he describes the events in England immediately before and after the death of Edward IV. The report came to light in 1934.
Marie of Anjou, Queen of France, 14 October 1404 – 29 November 1463 Wife of Charles VII of France, and mother of Louis XI of France, as well as 13 other children. Her niece, Margaret, became Queen of England.
Margaret of Anjou, Queen of England, 23 March 1430 – 25 August 1482 Margaret was the daughter of Duke René of Anjou whose sister, Marie, was the wife of Charles VII of France. In 1444, the Earl (later Duke) of Suffolk, Henry VI’s most trusted adviser sought peace with France. It was apparent to all but the most belligerent that England could no longer afford to continue the war. He agreed a truce with Charles of France and peace was to be cemented by the marriage of Margaret to Henry VI. She was married by proxy in the Cathedral of Tours on 24 May 1444, aged just 14. She arrived in England the following April and married Henry in person. Although Henry seems to have immediately become fond of her, Margaret did not conceive for several years. During the first years of her marriage, Margaret would have become aware that her husband’s nobles were jockeying for control of government. Suffolk, who had arranged her marriage, was impeached and lynched in 1450. Her husband’s two cousins Richard, Duke of York and Edmund, Duke of Somerset, were locked in a personal feud. Margaret clearly favoured Somerset and, coming from a background of factional politics in France, did not seem able to lift the Crown above faction. In 1453, when Henry VI fell into a catatonic state, York was proclaimed as Protector. During that year Margaret bore her only child, Edward of Lancaster, Prince of Wales. As soon as Henry recovered, Margaret brought Somerset back to the forefront of politics. By 1455, civil war was clearly brewing.
Throughout the years 1455 to 1461, Margaret was the strength behind the Lancastrians’ efforts to keep control of the kingdom. Following the Battle of Towton in 1461, Edward, son of Richard, Duke of York claimed the throne as Edward IV. Margaret fought a rearguard action, from her exile in Scotland and France. In 1469, she was apparently reconciled with Richard Neville Earl of Warwick, who had once been her bitterest enemy. Warwick invaded England, drove Edward IV into exile and released Henry VI from the Tower of London. Unfortunately by the time Margaret arrived, with another Lancastrian army, Edward IV had returned from Burgundy, and defeated Warwick at the Battle of Barnet. Margaret and her son raced to meet up with the Lancastrians under Jasper Tudor, but were defeated in a final terrible battle at Tewkesbury. Her son and husband both dead, Margaret spent several years imprisoned before being released to her cousin Louis XI of France. In Jones’ largely sympathetic interpretation of Margaret’s character, he emphasises the strong female role models that she had had in childhood: her aunt, the Queen of France, her mother, Isabelle, sovereign Duchess of Lorraine, and her grandmother, Yolanda of Aragon, who was one of the most powerful women in France.
Margaret, Princess of Scotland, c 1455 – unknown Daughter of James II of Scotland, Margaret was proposed as a wife for a number of Englishmen: Edward of Lancaster, Prince of Wales; George, Duke of Clarence and Anthony Woodville, Earl Rivers. In the event she married none of them and was disgraced for becoming the mistress, perhaps not entirely voluntarily, of Lord Crichton, by whom she had a daughter.
Margaret, Queen of Scots, 28 November 1489 – 18 October 1541 The eldest daughter of Henry VII and Elizabeth of York, Margaret was married to James IV of Scotland to seal the Treaty of Perpetual Peace in 1503. Margaret’s descendants have reigned in both England and Scotland since 1603.
Margaret of York, Duchess of Burgundy, 3 May 1446 – 23 November 1503 Margaret was the devoted sister of Edward IV and Richard III. In July 1468, she was married to Charles the Bold, Duke of Burgundy, as his third wife. She had no children but was on good terms with her stepdaughter, Mary. Margaret’s marriage to Burgundy was one of the factors which led Louis XI to support the Lancastrian invasion of 1469. Following this invasion, Edward IV escaped to Burgundy where he threw himself on the mercy of Margaret’s husband. Initially, Charles had little inclination to support him but eventually he decided that England under Edward IV was preferable to Lancastrian England, allied to Louis XI. Following Charles’s death in 1477, Margaret gave support and guidance to the new Duchess and was on good terms with Mary’s husband, Maximilian, King of the Romans. Once Henry VII took the Crown, Margaret was an inveterate supporter of Yorkist plots, in particular she claimed to recognise Perkin Warbeck as her nephew and gave him unstinting support.
Martin V, Pope, 1369 – 20 February 1431 Martin V created Henry Beaufort, Bishop of Winchester, Cardinal in 1417, with an additional responsibility to stamp out heresy in the Hussite stronghold of Hungary. The Pope refused to recognise the Treaty of Troyes, which undermined England’s claim to be the legitimate inheritors of the Crown, following the death of Charles VI.
Mary I, Queen of England, 18 February 1516 – 17 November 1558 The daughter of Henry VIII and Katherine of Aragon, she was her father’s pampered darling until she sided with her mother over the annulment. During the period 1525 – 8 Mary was treated as Princess of Wales (although never given the title) and looked likely to be accepted as Henry’s heir. However, when Henry made the decision to seek an annulment of his marriage to Katherine to marry Anne Boleyn, Mary lost her place. Separated from her mother in 1531, she was sent away from Court, and, in 1533 had her household disbanded whilst she was sent to act as Lady-in-Waiting to Anne’s daughter, Elizabeth. On Anne’s death in 1536, Mary appealed to Cromwell for him to intercede with her father for her. In an increasingly severe series of letters, Cromwell, presumably with Henry’s knowledge, bullied Mary into signing the Acts of Supremacy and Succession. Once this was done, Mary was re-united with her father, and became a close friend of his new wife, Jane Seymour. Mary was a prominent figure at her father’s court for most of the rest of his reign. Eventually restored to the succession in her father’s will, she fought off an attempt to deprive her of the Crown on the death of Edward VI. As England’s first female monarch, Mary had a difficult path to follow, and her short reign is remembered as disastrous (although the facts are more nuanced).
Mary, Duchess of Burgundy, 13 February 1457 – 27 March 1482 Mary was the greatest heiress in Europe and her hand was fought over by numerous suitors. George, Duke of Clarence was one possible contender, but this plan was blocked by his brother, Edward IV. The eventual winner was Maximilian of Habsburg, King of the Romans. Mary died at the age of 25, following a riding accident, and her lands passed to her son, Philip the Fair, Duke of Burgundy.
Mary of Guelders, 1434 – 1 December 1463 The widow of James II of Scotland and Regent for her son, James III, Mary was considered as a possible wife for Edward IV.
Mary, the French Queen, 18 March 1496 – 25 June 1533 Mary was the second daughter of Henry VII and Elizabeth of York. She was betrothed at the age of 11 to Charles of Castile, later the Emperor Charles V. Charles and his grandfather, the Emperor Maximilian, dragged their feet over completing the marriage and Henry VIII took the opportunity to marry his sister to the aged Louis XII of France. After brief period as Queen of France, Mary returned to England having secretly married her brother’s friend, Charles Brandon, Duke of Suffolk by whom she was the grandmother of Lady Jane Grey.
Mary of York, 1467 – 1482 The second child of Edward IV and Elizabeth Woodville, Mary died at the age of about 15.
Marillac, Charles de, c. 1510 – 2 December 1560 Ambassador of François I to England during the 1540s. He reported on Henry VIII’s marriage to Anne of Cleves, and also on the death of Lady Margaret Pole (Plantagenet), Countess of Salisbury.
Maychell, John. A Cumbrian farmer, he gave refuge to Henry VI during 1464 when the former king secretly returned to England.
Meno, Pregent Meno was a Breton merchant who employed a young man by the name of Pierrechon Warbecq, commonly known as Perkin Warbeck. Meno landed in court in Dublin in late 1491, and his assistant was immediately seized upon as a tool which the Yorkists could use to unseat Henry VII.
Merfeld, John and William In 1450 these two brothers were brought before the court for claiming that Henry VI was simple-minded and ought to be replaced as King.
Mitton, Thomas, Bailiff of Shrewsbury On 17 August 1485, Mitton lowered the portcullis on the western gate of Shrewsbury, to prevent the entrance of Henry Tudor and his army. Mitton claimed that he would only permit Henry to pass ‘over his belly’. On receiving a message from the Stanley brothers, the most important Lords in the region, Mitton opened the gates, lay down in the road and permitted Henry to pass over him.
Moleyns, Adam, Bishop of Chichester d. 9 January 1450 An ally of the Duke of Suffolk and Queen Margaret of Anjou, Moleyns was Lord Privy Seal. For reasons that are not fully known, but that may have been political or personal in motive, he was murdered in Plymouth en route to the Holy Land.
Montacute, Thomas, 4th Earl of Salisbury, 13 June 1388 – 3 November 1428 One of the English leaders at the victory of Verneuil, he was killed during the Siege of Orleans. His daughter Alice, married to Richard Neville, brother of Cecily Neville, Duchess of York, inherited the earldom.
Mortimer, Sir Edmund, 10 December 1376 – 1409. Mortimer took part in the revolt of Owain Glyndwr, and supported the claim of his nephew, Edmund Mortimer, 4th Earl of March, to be the rightful king, rather than Henry IV.
Mortimer, Sir Roger, 1st Earl of March, 25 April 1287 – 29 November 1330 Mortimer was the lover of Isabella of France, Queen of England. Together they deposed her unsatisfactory husband, Edward II, initially with significant public support, but when they showed themselves to be little better than Edward II, they rapidly lost popularity. When Isabella’s son, Edward III, was 17, he asserted his own authority and Mortimer was hanged.
Morton, John, Bishop of Ely, c. 1420 – 1500 (Later Cardinal and Archbishop of Canterbury) Morton was a member of Edward IV’s Council. He was involved in the Duke of Buckingham’s rebellion, and was attainted by Parliament. Morton’s support for Henry Tudor was an important factor in the latter’s successful bid for the throne. Under Henry VII he became Archbishop of Canterbury, and Lord Chancellor.
Morton, Robert, Master of the Rolls. 1435 – May 1497 Morton, nephew of the Bishop of Ely, was Master of the Rolls from 1479. On 22 September 1483, he was relieved of his position by Richard III who suspected that Morton and his uncle were involved in plots against him. Under Henry VII he became Bishop of Worcester.
Mowbray, Anne, Countess and Duchess of Norfolk, Duchess of York, 10 December 1472 – 1481 Anne was the only living child of John Mowbray, 4th Duke of Norfolk. The earldom of Norfolk was heritable in the female line, and Anne became 8th Countess. In order to secure this rich inheritance for one of his sons, Edward IV arranged the marriage of Anne to his younger son, Richard of Shrewsbury, Duke of York. The dukedom of Norfolk was then bestowed on Richard and, contrary to normal practice, he and his heirs were granted the reversion of Anne’s estates.
Mowbray, John, 3rd Duke of Norfolk, 12 September 1415 – 6 November 1461 A friend and associate of Richard, Duke of York during the 1440s, he was reluctant to commit himself to armed support until the Battle of Northampton in 1460 at which he fought for the Yorkists. He also supported them at the second Battle of St Albans on 17 February 1461. He supported Edward in his claim to be King in early 1461 and played an important part in the Battle of Towton.
Mowbray, John 4th Duke of Norfolk, 18 October 1440 – 14 January 1476 Norfolk attended the coronation of Elizabeth Woodville. On his death his earldom of Norfolk passed to his daughter, Anne.
Mowbray, Sir Thomas de 1st Duke of Norfolk, 22 March 1368 – 22 September 1399 Mowbray was one of the Lords Appellant, who sought to control the tyranny of Richard II. He was banished from England by Richard, following a quarrel with Henry Bolingbroke, later Henry IV.
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