Chapter 3 : Cade - Dudley
Cade, Jack, d. 16 July 1450 Cade was the leader of the rebellion which began in Kent in the early summer of 1450. Whilst there is no evidence at all that Cade had any relationship with the Duke of York, one of his demands was that York should be recalled from Ireland and involved in royal government. Cade’s men arrived at Blackheath in mid-June, and after a number of skirmishes Henry VI and his Government left London. The rebels executed without trial a number of Henry VI’s advisers. Queen Margaret issued a proclamation offering pardons to rebels who would return home. Cade refused, was denounced as a traitor and captured in Sussex in action during which he was mortally wounded.
Calot, Lawrence Calot was one of the clerks of John of Lancaster, Duke of Bedford. He wrote a detailed claim of Henry VI’s right to the French throne, which was based not just on his father’s victories and the Treaty of Troyes, but also on his hereditary rights.
Catherine de Valois, Queen of England, 27 October 1401 – 3 January 1437 Catherine was the youngest daughter of Charles VI of France and Isabeau of Bavaria. By the Treaty of Troyes, Catherine was married in June 1422 to Henry V, King of England, and now heir apparent to her father. Within two years Catherine was a widow and mother of an infant King. During his early childhood she was always with him, but when Henry VI reached the age of about eight, as was customary, he left the care of his mother, to be brought up by men. Catherine was suspected of planning to marry Edmund Beaufort, brother of the Duke of Somerset. An act was quickly rushed through Parliament to prevent widowed Queens marrying without the consent of their adult sons. Catherine, however, ignored this and married Owen Tudor, a member of her household. They had several children before Catherine died, after a long illness, at Bermondsey Abbey.
Catesby, Sir William, c. 1450 – 25 August 1485 A faithful supporter of Richard III, he was Speaker of the House of Commons in the Parliament of 1484. Captured at the Battle of Bosworth, he was executed three days later.
Caxton, William. c.1422 – 1491 In around 1475, Caxton brought the first printing press to England. He was patronised by Edward IV’s brother-in-law, Anthony, Earl Rivers.
Cecily of York 20 March 1469 – 24 August 1507 Cecily was the second daughter of Edward IV and Elizabeth of York. She was married to John, 1st Viscount Welles, stepbrother of Lady Margaret Beaufort, Countess of Richmond. The marriage was part of Henry VII’s efforts to integrate York and Lancaster. Her second marriage, to Thomas Kyme of Lincolnshire, led to her being disgraced and banished from court.
Chapuys, Eustace c. 1490 – 1556 Chapuys was the ambassador to Henry VIII from Charles V, Holy Roman Emperor. He was resident in England from 1529 to 1545. Much of our knowledge of the court of Henry VIII is based on his letters to Charles V and Charles’ sister, Mary of Hungary, who was his Regent in the Low Countries. Chapuys was a strong supporter of Katherine of Aragon and Princess Mary, both personally, and on behalf of his master. Often portrayed as Spanish, he was, in fact, from Savoy, in the Franco-Italian border.
Charles IV, King of France, 19 June 1294 – 1 February 1328 Charles was the father of Isabella of France, and thus the grandfather of Edward III of England. It was through this relationship that England claimed the throne of France.
Charles V, Holy Roman Emperor, 24 February 1500 – 21 September 1558 Nephew of Katherine of Aragon, first wife of Henry VIII, Charles V was the most powerful man in Europe in the first half of the 16th century. At the Battle of Pavia on 24 February 1525 where Charles defeated François I of France, Richard de la Pole, the last ‘White Rose’ was killed.
Charles VI, King of France, 3 December 1368 – 21 October 1422 Variously known as Charles the Well Beloved or Charles the Mad, he was father both of Isabelle of Valois, the second wife of Richard II, and also of Catherine of Valois, the wife of Henry V. King Charles’ mental incapacity meant that his kingdom was completely vulnerable to the onslaughts of the English. The argument between his brother, Louis of Orleans (Armagnacs) and his uncle, Philip the Good, Duke of Burgundy (Burgundians) as to who should rule on his behalf fatally weakened his kingdom. He (or his government) agreed in the Treaty of Troyes, signed on 21st May 1420, that Henry V of England would marry his daughter, Catherine, and inherit his kingdom. Charles died within 6 months of the Treaty being agreed.
Charles VII, King of France, 22 January 1403 – 22 July 1461 The son of Charles VI, he refused to accept the Treaty of Troyes and continued to resist English dominance in France. The advent of Joan of Arc completely transformed his fortunes and he went on to drive the English out of his country. His wife, Marie of Anjou, was the aunt of Margaret of Anjou, Queen of England. The marriage treaty between Charles VII and Henry VI resulted in the ceding of Maine to France. This was bitterly disliked by many of Henry VI’s nobles, and made Margaret unpopular from the first day of her arrival in England.
Charles VIII, King of France, 30 June 1470 – 7 April 1498 The son of Louis XI of France, Charles inherited the throne at the age of 13. His sister, Anne of Beaujeu, acted as Regent. They supported the invasion of England by Henry Tudor, but when Charles attempted to annex the Duchy of Brittany and also showed support for the pretender, Perkin Warbeck, he was obliged to face Henry’s army. More interested in his claims to territory in Italy, than in reigniting the Hundred Years War, Charles VIII and Henry VII came to a final agreement at the Treaty of Etaples in 1491. Charles died, aged 28, when he hit his head on a stone doorway.
Charles the Bold, Duke of Burgundy, 10 November 1433 – 5 January 1477 Charles married, as his second wife, Margaret of York, sister of Edward IV. Although initially a supporter of Lancaster, when it appeared that France, Burgundy’s enemy, was preparing to support the recapture of the throne by Henry VI, Charles was persuaded to give money and men to his brother-in-law, Edward of York. This resulted in Edward’s successful return to England which culminated in the Battle of Tewkesbury.
Chaucer, Alice, Duchess of Suffolk, 1404 – 1475 Alice, who was the granddaughter of the poet Geoffrey Chaucer, and the great-niece of Katherine Swynford, Duchess of Lancaster, married as her second husband Thomas Montacute, 4th Earl of Salisbury. Alice had no children by Salisbury, but by her third husband, William de la Pole, 1st Duke of Suffolk, she had a son, John. John was briefly married as a child to Lady Margaret Beaufort, Countess of Richmond, but their marriage was annulled. He subsequently married Elizabeth of York, daughter of Richard, Duke of York. This encouraged Alice to change her allegiance to York, after the death of Suffolk in 1450. Her grandsons were all claimants to the English crown.
Cheyne, John, c. 1442 – 1492 Cheyne was a supporter of Edward IV, appointed as a Squire of the Body to Queen Elizabeth Woodville in the 1460s. He supported Henry VII at the Battle of Bosworth, where he was in Henry’s bodyguard, and after Henry’s victory, received the post of Master of the Horse.
Christmas, Stephen Leader of a failed uprising against Henry VI, quashed by the Duke of Somerset.
Clifford, John, 9th Baron Clifford, 8 April 1435 – 28 March 1461 Lord Clifford’s father had been killed by the Yorkists at the first Battle of St Albans. He was desperate for revenge and in February 1458 requested compensation for his father’s death. Clifford was one of the commanders of Lancastrian forces at Battle of Wakefield where he captured Edmund, Earl of Rutland, the 17-year-old son of the Duke of York. In an act which was considered barbarous not only by the Yorkists but also by his own side, Clifford stabbed Rutland to death. He was himself killed only three months later at an ambush prior to the Battle of Towton.
Clifford, Sir Robert, d. 1508 Clifford was a younger son of Thomas, 8th Lord Clifford, but unlike his brother, John, 9th Lord Clifford, appears to have been reconciled to York. He became involved in the attempts to identify Perkin Warbeck as Richard of Shrewsbury Duke of York, and was sent by various interested parties to Flanders to check the young man’s identity. Clifford (who may have been a double agent) denounced Sir William Stanley as implicated in the affair.
Clifford Thomas, 8th Lord Clifford, 25 March 1414 – 22 May 1455 Clifford had taken part in military manoeuvres in France with John of Lancaster, Duke of Bedford, during the 1430s. He was a loyal supporter of Lancaster and one of the commanders of the King’s troops at the first Battle of St Albans. He was killed during the battle.
Cobham, Reginald, 3rd Lord Cobham As the father of Eleanor Cobham, Duchess of Gloucester, he was one of the earliest adherents of the Duke of York’s party.
Cobham, Eleanor, Duchess of Gloucester, c. 1400 – 7 July 1452 Eleanor was a lady-in-waiting to Jacqueline of Hainault, Duchess of Gloucester, but soon became the mistress of the Duke. When the Duke’s marriage was annulled in 1425, he married Eleanor. Eleanor was convicted of witchcraft when it came to light that she had consulted astrologers with regard to the King’s health. She was required to do public penance, her marriage was annulled and she was imprisoned in various castles and finally at Beaumaris in Anglesey where she died.
Commines, Philip de 1447 – 18 October 1511 Commines was initially in the service of Charles the Bold, Duke of Burgundy, but in 1472 he left Burgundy by stealth to join the court of Charles’s great enemy, Louis XI of France. He wrote a memoir on which much of our knowledge of the period is based.
Conyers, Sir John of Hornby d. 1490 Conyers was a retainer first of Richard Neville, Earl of Salisbury, and secondly of Salisbury’s son, Richard Neville, Earl of Warwick. He fought for York at Blore Heath but his loyalty was to his own lord and he supported Warwick’s insurrection against Edward IV. He may have been the outlaw Robin of Redesdale or he may have used Robin’s name in a second uprising planned by Warwick. He was later retained by Richard III, for whom he fought at Bosworth. He survived and later supported Henry VII at the Battle of Stoke. Conyers had a son of the same name, who followed a similar career path.
Cooke, Sir Thomas. Cooke was a Draper who became Lord Mayor of London in 1462 to 1463. He had lent significant sums of money to Edward IV. In 1468 he was accused, together with other London aldermen, of plotting against King Edward. He was tried and acquitted of treason but found guilty of ‘misprision’ of treason – that is, knowing of treasonable activity and not reporting it. He received a heavy fine, but was pardoned.
Courtenay, Sir Edward, 1st Earl of Devon d. 1509 Son of Sir Hugh Courtenay, following the usurpation of Richard III, he carried messages between Lady Margaret Beaufort, Countess of Richmond, and her son in exile, Henry Tudor. When Henry took the throne as Henry VII, the title of Earl of Devon was recreated for him. He supported Henry VII against Perkin Warbeck.
Courtenay, Henry, Marquis of Exeter c. 1498 – 1538 Courtenay was the son of Henry VIII’s aunt, Katherine of York, and spent much of his childhood in the royal nurseries with Henry VIII, Margaret, Queen of Scots, and Mary, the French Queen. Nevertheless, his childhood was overshadowed by the imprisonment of his father and grandfather for alleged Yorkist conspiracies. Following Henry VIII’s accession, Courtenay was permitted to inherit the title of Earl of Devon, and he served in the French wars of 1512-13 in the English navy. He grew close to his cousin, the King, and was appointed to the Privy Council in 1520. In 1525, he received the title of Marquis of Exeter. Exeter supported Henry in his annulment proceedings, but, no supporter of Anne Boleyn, he collaborated in her downfall. In 1538, Exeter was accused of conspiring with his cousins, Reginald Pole and Henry Pole, Lord Montague to restore Papal authority, and possibly replace Henry himself. Exeter, Montague and others were attainted and executed.
Courtenay, Sir Hugh, c.1427 - 4 May 1471 Cousin of the Earls of Devon he joined the Lancastrian army of Margaret of Anjou and fought at Tewkesbury. Following defeat he sought sanctuary in the Abbey, but, together with the Duke of Somerset and a number of others, he was dragged out and tried in a court assembled in front of Richard of Gloucester, Constable of England. Courtenay and the others were executed.
Courtenay, Sir John, c. 1435 - 4 May 1471 His older brother, Thomas, 14th Earl of Devon, having been executed, in Lancastrian eyes Sir John became the 15th Earl. As the 14th Earl had been attainted by Yorkist Parliament, this was not of much practical use. In 1471, Courtenay joined the invasion force of Margaret of Anjou and was killed at the Battle of Tewkesbury.
Courtenay, Peter, Bishop of Exeter c. 1432 - 23 September 1492 A distant cousin of the Earl of Devon, Courtenay received a number of ecclesiastical benefices under Edward IV. He became involved in the rebellion of the Duke of Buckingham against Richard III and when that collapsed escaped to France, where he joined Henry Tudor. He became Keeper of the Privy Seal, assisted at Henry VII’s coronation and at the investiture of Henry’s son, Arthur, as Prince of Wales.
Courtenay, Thomas, 13th Earl of Devon, 1414 – 3 February 1458 Devon was married as a young man to Margaret Beaufort, daughter of John, 1st Earl of Somerset and aunt of John, 1st Duke and Edmund, 2nd Duke of Somerset. Nevertheless he became attached to Richard, Duke of York’s party. His private feud with his rivals for influence in Devon and Cornwall, the Bonvilles, was a contributing factor to the unrest which bedevilled Henry VI’s reign. Quarrels with the Bonvilles resulted in Devon’s arrest and imprisonment. Following this, his relationship with York cooled as York appeared to favour the Bonvilles. Devon was present for Lancaster at the Battle of St Albans, where he was lightly wounded. He died of natural causes in 1458.
Courtenay, Thomas, 14th Earl of Devon, 1432 – 3 April 1461 Devon, as closely involved as his father, the 13th Earl, in the feuding with the Bonvilles, fought for Lancaster at Towton. Captured during the battle, he was executed immediately after. He was attainted by Parliament and his goods and titles forfeit.
Courtenay, William 2nd Earl of Devon, 1475 - 9 June 1511 Son and heir of Edward Courtenay, 1st Earl of Devon, he was married to Katherine of York, sister of Queen Elizabeth of York. For some unknown reason he supported the claim of Edmund de la Pole, 3rd Duke of Suffolk to the throne, for which he was attainted and imprisoned. He was released on the accession of Henry VIII and his title restored.
Coventry, John, Lord Mayor of London Coventry was selected as Lord Mayor of London in October 1425. The very day of his inaugural feast he was summoned to a meeting with Humphrey, Duke of Gloucester, and told to protect London against a possible attack by troops of Cardinal Beaufort, Bishop of Winchester.
Crowmer, William, Sheriff of Kent 3 July 1450 Crowmer was one of the unlucky men taken prisoner by Jack Cade’s men during their rebellion in 1450. He was lynched by the mob.
Crue Thomas Edmund de la Pole, Duke of Suffolk, was accused, in 1498, of murdering a man named Thomas Crue. This precipitated Suffolk’s rebellion against Henry VII.
Daubeney, Sir Giles, 1 June 1451 – 21 May 1508 Daubeney was in the army of Edward IV that invaded France in 1475. He became one of Edward IV’s bodyguards and was present at the coronation of Richard III. He was attainted for his part in the rebellion of the Duke of Buckingham in 1483 but escaped to Brittany where he joined Henry Tudor. He was present at the Battle of Bosworth and became one of Henry VII’s most trusted advisers, a Privy Councillor and leader of the King’s forces both against the Scots and against the Cornish rebels.
Devereux, Sir Walter, c. 1431 – 22 August 1485 The Devereux family were clients of the Duke of York and were rivals in South Wales for prominence against Edmund Tudor, Earl of Richmond. In the Coventry Parliament of 1460, Devereux was attainted. Knighted at the Battle of Towton he attained high office under Edward IV. He survived both the Battles of Barnet and Tewkesbury and became a councillor of the young Edward, Prince of Wales. He transferred his allegiance to Richard III and died at Bosworth.
Dudley, Edmund d. 17 August 1510. Speaker of the House of Commons and a Privy Councillor, Dudley was hated for his effective tax gathering and implementation of some of Henry VII’s more unpleasant money raising tactics. On the accession of Henry VIII, he was gaoled and executed.
This article is available for Kindle, for purchase from Amazon